The Curator Goes to War – British toys for British boys

@Royal Armouries

@Royal Armouries

The Minute Book entries for October 1914 are the usual mix of domestic detail, grand strategy and a pinch of world events.

The move of material (Royal armours)to the White Tower sub-crypt was a precaution against the anticipated Zeppelin air attacks, although they did not finally materialise in London until 8th August 1915. It was no coincidence that on the same day ffoulkes was presented with a practical war-time role. Although apparently resigning himself to “continue the work for which I had been appointed and await developments” at the outbreak of war, the Senior service finally provided an opportunity for this “entirely untrained civilian … [aged] … forty-six”. The use of RNVR personnel to man London’s air defences was the First Lord of the Admiralty’s (one Winston Churchill) response to an urgent appeal from the Lord Mayor of London as the trained gunners were needed in France. Mr C mobilized an Anti-Aircraft corps in the RNVR with searchlights being manned by the electrical staff of the Office of Works and the guns by men, many of whom had joined the special constabulary detailed for duty at the Royal Palaces. ffoulkes “took my place in the long queue and was enrolled as an able seaman, being promoted with startling rapidity to Chief Petty Officer and sub –Lieutenant” (Arms and the Tower p.75) – re-enforcing the impression that Charles was not one to hide his light under the proverbial bushel. His enthusiasm was catching. Lord Dillon, apparently a keen yachtsman in his youth also tried to enlist but at 70 years old his offer was rejected albeit with compliments on his patriotism.

Meanwhile, the home front was also under direct attack as staff laboured to keep woodworm at bay in the White Tower. There are several references to the block being treated during this period, and the wooden display horses were not immune. The core of the Armouries stable was provided by those animals nobly supporting the figures for the last 200 years. Unfortunately, although time had given them a greater status than mere props, identifying the fate (and date) of individual steeds continues to be problematical today. The deal horse ordered to be cut up on 21st October is probably the one seen prancing here on the top floor of the White Tower sometime between 1884 and 1913.

@ Royal Armouries

@ Royal Armouries

Contemporary newspaper reports suggest that it was this figure – or rather ffoulkes wooden model of it lent by Viscount Dillon – that helped the Women’s Emergency Corps toy making department’s push to produce British toys for the home market as Christmas 1914 approached. A wooden “Henry VIII in silvery armour tilting with a scarlet lance” based on ffoulkes’ model was intended to be the first of a series of soldiers “Ancient and Modern” according to the Sheffield Telegraph of 29th October 1914. Ffoulkes remained uncharacteristically quiet about his involvement in this particular enterprise. ( Many thanks to Naomi Paxton for bringing this snippet to my attention).

Meanwhile ffoulkes’ rationalisation of the Armouries collection by disposing of those parts he did not consider core gathered momentum. The loan of Oriental arms and armour, Prehistoric and Greek and Roman material to the British Museum proposed before the War moved closer with news of their Trustees’ agreement. By the end of October a new firearms case had arrived and existing cases were being French polished and their locks altered ready for the redisplays to follow the transfer.

Blogger: Bridget Clifford, Keeper of Tower Armouries

Ask A Curator Day Wednesday 17 September 2014

Have you ever wondered what it is like to be a curator of artillery? Perhaps you have always wanted to know what was in a ‘vampire killing kit’, or speculated as to why the White Tower has two mummified cats in its collection! Well now’s your chance to find out and ask the experts directly as the Royal Armouries team will be taking part in the annual #AskaCurator Day tomorrow.

Jonathan Ferguson, Curator of Firearms

Jonathan Ferguson, Curator of Firearms

Organised by cultural blogger @MarDixon, this social media event creates an unique opportunity for members of the public to communicate directly with curators and people who work behind the scenes in cultural venues. Last year 622 museums from over 37 countries took part, answering questions about collections, objects and histories from participants around the world.

Royal Armouries will have a range of experts on hand to answer your arms, armour and artillery related questions:

Leeds

Natasha Bennett, Acting Curator Oriental Collections

Natasha obtained her BA in History from the University of Durham (2007), and a MA in Art Gallery and Museum Studies at the University of Leeds (2010). Before coming to the Armouries, she worked as an intern at the V&A and the Green Howards Regimental Museum. Prior to her MA she worked as an editorial and publishing assistant, and as a librarian.

Natasha works with our wide range of arms and armour from Asia and Africa, spanning multiple countries, cultures and time periods. Past research projects have included papers analysing Asian matchlock mechanisms and the substantial gift of Indian arms and armour bestowed on the Tower of London in 1853 by the East India Company. Currently she is looking at the textiles incorporated into Japanese armour, and is also interested in how a study of Asian and African arms and armour can provide insight into the complexities of trading relations across the world over time.

Henry Yallop, Assistant Curator European Edged Weapons

Having completed his first degree in History (BA, King’s College London 2001-2004), Henry went on to focus on the early medieval period at the University of York (MA, Medieval Studies, 2004-2005). Henry then began his museum career as a long-term volunteer at the Norwich Castle Museum, whilst working part time. He moved back to London to work for the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council, firstly with the Export Licencing Department and then for The Reviewing Committee on the Export of Works of Art and Objects of Cultural Interest.   When MLA relocated, Henry took the opportunity to do a Museum qualification at the University of East Anglia (MA, Museum Studies & Cultural Heritage, 2010-11) which he received after further voluntary work with the National Army Museum.

He took up the post of Assistant Curator (European Edged Weapons) in 2012 after a lifelong fascination with arms, armour and military history. He is particularly interested in the development, use and effect of historical weapons.

Jonathan Ferguson, Curator of Firearms

Having completed a first degree in Archaeology (BA, Exeter 1997-2000), Jonathan began his museum career as a volunteer at Coldharbour Mill Museum in Devon. After further voluntary work with the National Museum of Ireland, he received his postgraduate diploma in Museum Studies from the University of Leicester in 2002, and found work at Colchester Museum documenting the archaeological and oral history collections there.

In 2006 he joined the Collections Department at the Imperial War Museum’s Duxford site, sourcing objects and carrying out research for the major ‘AirSpace’ redevelopment. He then became Assistant Curator of Military History at the National War Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh Castle where he curated the exhibition ‘Call to Arms’ in 2008.

He took up the post of Curator of Firearms at the Royal Armouries in 2009. Based at the National Firearms Centre, his research interests are in the area of use and effect of firearms, and gun-related mythology and folklore. He has been researching so-called ‘vampire killing kits’ since 2007.

Lisa Traynor, Assistant Curator of Firearms

Lisa completed her degree in History and Museum Studies (BA, Huddersfield 2006-11), and in particular focused on the history of arms and armour 1750-1918.  She began her museum career as a volunteer at Museums Sheffield in (2007-09), whilst studying. In 2012 she joined the Visitor Experience team at Royal Armouries Leeds, devising talks for visitors on the history of firearms and the different conflicts in which they were used. She then became the Firearms Documentation Assistant at Royal Armouries in December 2012. Through documenting the former MOD collection, Lisa studied pistols in depth, noting their actions, operating systems and calibres.

She took up the post of First World War Researcher in December 2013. Along with her two colleagues she is curating ‘Bullets, Blades and Battle Bowlers’ a gallery exhibition telling the story of the rise of weapon technology during 1914-18. She is currently working on her paper: ‘The bullet-proof vest and the Archduke: 19th-century innovation versus 20th-century firepower’. Her research involves practical ballistic testing in order to test the claims of 19th-century inventor, Casimir Zeglen. The primary aim of this research is to assess the capabilities of a 19th-century bullet-proof vest against the FN Browning Model 1910, the model of pistol used to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

The White Tower

Bridget Clifford, Keeper of the Tower Armouries

Bridget joined the National Maritime Museum after graduating in History from Manchester University in1977, having cut her museum teeth as a volunteer in her ‘local’ at Hereford. Four years later, she moved to the Armouries and the Department of Edged Weapons, spending the first year battling with ‘old Tower stock’ of the pointy kind in the Brick Tower.

Four children and 20 years part-time curating later, having worked on projects ranging from re-storage of the Armouries collections in the Tower in the mid 80s, to taking over the Tower Library and Archive in celebration of the new millennium, and several Tower exhibitions in between, she returned to full-time work as Keeper of Collections South (and library!) in September 2006.

Fort Nelson

Philip Magrath, Curator of Artillery

Philip read for an Honours Degree in History at the University of Sussex, followed soon after by a Masters Degree in Museum Studies at University College London, a Diploma in English Local History and a Further and Adult Education Teaching Certificate.

Previously employed by English Heritage and Gosport Borough Council at Explosion! The Museum of Naval Firepower. He joined the Royal Armouries at Fort Nelson in 1991 working in various capacities and was appointed Curator of Artillery in 2001.

Nicholas Hall, Keeper of Artillery

Nicholas read History of Art at the Courtauld Institute, London and joined the then Tower Armouries in 1972. He was fortunate to be mentored by Howard Blackmore, Russell Robinson and Alan Borg, leading scholars in the arms & armour field and to spend valuable time in the workshop with craftsmen Ted Smith and Arthur Davies.

In 1978 Nicholas became Keeper of Metalwork at Hampshire County Museums, opening a community museum in Havant. When the County bought Fort Nelson, a derelict Ancient Monument, he was asked to help decide its future. The Fort was restored and eventually became the Royal Armouries’ artillery museum. In 1988 Nicholas re-joined the Royal Armouries to develop Fort Nelson and prepare the museum displays for opening in 1995. The use of historic artillery became a particular interest, involving participation in TV programmes and consultancy on behalf of the museum.

Our curators will be available between 10am and 1pm and 3pm and 5pm to take your questions. All you have to do is tweet your questions to @Royal_Armouries or @Fort_Nelson and a curator will respond. If it is a complex question about the collection it may take a little time to research and respond, but we will certainly try and get back to you as soon as possible!

To find out more about this event please visit www.mardixon.com

The Curator Goes to War – Autumn leaves

image 1 curator to war blog

September 1914 brought with it the reality of war as ffoulkes matter of factly recorded the departure of the first of his staff to serve King and Country.

Foreman William Henry Noble Buckingham joined the Tower as a Carpenter, and the first Armouries record we have of him is a signed piece of glass paper retrieved from inside XVII.12 (one of the wooden horses made for the Line of Kings at the Tower)  which reads “Repaired August 1893 By W Buckingham Carpenter”.  As Armouries Foreman he was responsible for the oversight of the 11 Armouries staff and the maintenance of the displays in the White Tower which ffoulkes was gradually modernising. A keen volunteer artilleryman, he had served in 1900 with the City Imperial Volunteers in the South African War (1899 -1902).  He re-enlisted in 1914 with the rank of Battery Sergeant-Major, Field Artillery and was sent to Peterborough with the Reserve Battery of the 1st Essex Battery. He fell ill in March 1915 and was given 3 weeks leave, dying on “the very hour” he should have returned to duty.

And cleaner W. Williams? He marched off to war, and apparent oblivion.  The Armouries records make no further mention of him or his fate.

Ten days later the 2nd Battalion the Scots Guards marched out of the Tower led by Col Bolton and a military band.

Ffoulkes watches the Guards leave for camp at Lyndhurst in the New Forest – he’s the bare headed gent standing on the Water Lane pavement to the left of the picture, 5th chap up with prominent white collar. Photographer Sgt Christopher Pilkington.

Ffoulkes watches the Guards leave for camp at Lyndhurst in the New Forest – he’s the bare headed gent standing on the Water Lane pavement to the left of the picture, 5th chap up with prominent white collar. Photographer Sgt Christopher Pilkington.

Staff Sergeant Christopher Pilkington was attached to the 2nd Battalion the Scots Guards and more of his unique record of their early war experience can be seen on the Imperial War Museum’s website. Ffoulkes was not averse to keeping a photographic record of his exploits, and a copy of this photograph was pasted into his album following on from earlier ones showing his return of local militia colours.

At the end of the month, Lionel Earle’s visit conferred both the official seal of approval on ffoulkes labours to modernise the displays and a timely reminder that life must go on even in the face of war.

Blogger: Bridget Clifford, Keeper of Tower Armouries

For details of the Royal Armouries’ First World War Centenary programme visit the website.

The Curator Goes to War – an everyday story of museum ffoulkes.

August 1914 – War!

Ffoulkes entry from the Minute book, date 28th July 1914

Ffoulkes entry from the Minute book, date 28th July 1914

Ffoulkes entry in the Minute book was brief and to the point – in the Diary he compiled retrospectively from 1933 “Bulgaria and Turkey” were added to the opposition.

Unfortunately to this modern eye it still reads like a fixture in a sporting league. Which rather begs the question, how are momentous events appropriately recorded? ffoulkes was not to know the impact that this event was to have on his career, let alone the rest of the world, when he penned the entry. Its very simplicity and starkness remains striking.
In his autobiography Arms and the Tower published in 1939 with the benefit of over 2 decades of hindsight, ffoulkes was honest about his military prospects “It will be obvious that neither the Army nor Navy would have the slightest use for an entirely untrained civilian at the age of forty-six, and to me the proper course was to continue the work for which I had been appointed and await developments” (p.71).
And what developments there might be. His working relationship with Sir Guy Laking, Keeper of the King’s Armoury at Windsor Castle was flourishing. In July 1914 it had facilitated the return of Henrician material and armours associated with Sir John Smythe and the Earl of Worcester to the Tower after their migration in “the latter years of the XVIIth century”. ffoulkes trumpeted this coup as “the most important addition to the Armouries since 1661”, and he looked forward to their future collaboration. Sadly the war, ffoulkes increasing involvement in the preservation of the material it generated and Laking’s early death in 1919 scuppered these plans.
July has also witnessed the incident of the American lady digging “an overlong finger nail” into the worm eaten execution block, recorded in the Diary (17th July) but absent from the original Minute Book. However the solution to the problem in the form of a new case received on 28th July is entered in the Minute book. And the fate of the owner of the offending digit? She was dealt with by the Curator and expelled from the Armouries.
Equilibrium having been restored, apart from the outbreak of War, the only other entry for August covered the visit of the Marchesa Stampa, Count J de Salis and the Countess Philllipine de Noailles on the 25th – members of the European in-crowd –in other words back to business as usual.
It was September 1914 that was to see the War really begin to impact on the Armouries.
B Clifford
Keeper of Tower History

The Edged Weapons of the First World War…

The up-coming First World War exhibition at Royal Armouries, Leeds will not only look at the firearms used during the War but also the evolution of edged weapons. We spoke to Assistant Curator of European Edged Weapons, Henry Yallop to find out more…

Can you tell us a little bit about your involvement in the research and preparation for the First World War exhibition?
It has been pretty all encompassing for Curator of Firearms Jonathan Ferguson, First World War Researcher, Lisa Traynor and I.  From choosing and acquiring the objects to conducting research, writing and editing all the content for both the physical and online exhibition – it has been non-stop.  We have also been heavily involved in the design of the gallery space and will even be installing it alongside the technicians.  The curatorial team have had a lot of involvement from start to finish.

Henry Yallop, Assistant Curator of European Edged Weapons

Henry Yallop, Assistant Curator of European Edged Weapons holding a Cavalry Trooper’s Sword, British, 1915

Can you tell us about some of the edged weapons that were used during the First World War and how they evolved afterwards?
The most common edged weapon of the War, carried by almost every soldier, was the bayonet.  Various types were used and it was still, despite huge advances in firepower, seen as an essential weapon of the infantryman. After the War the bayonet was viewed more as an auxiliary weapon of last resort. Nevertheless, changes in bayonet design did come about following the experiences of the First World War.

Every nation also started the War with sword, and even lance, armed cavalry.  The ‘cavalry spirit’ was still strong in a lot of armies and some still saw closing to contact the true purpose of cavalry. As such, in the years leading up to the War many nations attempted to improve upon their sword and lance designs.  However, the emergence of tanks during the War and their development afterwards effectively spelt the end of edged weapon armed cavalry, and with it any further development of sword and lance.

Perhaps the most unique edged weapons of the First World War are those that developed out of trench warfare.  Here a range of both improvised and purpose designed edged weapons were developed for the specific trench conditions of hand-to-hand combat.  Some of these were new designs, but others harked back to the medieval period.

What have you found most interesting about working on this project?
The opportunity to work alongside the Firearms team has been very rewarding.  I am fascinated by all arms and armour, so expanding my knowledge outside of my main discipline was excellent.  Although we have all had our main area of interest, working with each other enabled us to expand our individual understanding and the relationship between edged weapons, firearms and armour during this period.

What has been your most interesting discovery?
That there were occasions, despite the modern and changing nature of warfare, that cavalry armed with edged weapons could still have a role to play.  In the Middle East mounted regiments of the British Empire were asking to be issued with swords as late as 1918.  They were still considered essential weapons, and on more than one occasion proved to be uniquely so.

Lord Kitchener's sword and scabbard British, 1898 (XVI.16) © Royal Armouries

Lord Kitchener’s sword and scabbard British, 1898 (XVI.16) © Royal Armouries

What edged weapons can people expect to see in the exhibition?
We are displaying the full range of edged weapons used in the First World War; Swords, lances, bayonets, knives, daggers, clubs, knuckledusters, even a pike and a sharpened spade! Some of these have specific regimental and even personal associations. Although not intended to be used as a weapon, we are very lucky to have Field Marshal Kitchener’s sword, who was such an important figure to the whole of the British Empire’s war effort from 1914-16.

Bullets, Blades and Battle Bowlers: the personal arms and armour of the First World War will go on display at Royal Armouries Museum, Leeds In September 2014. For more details about the First World War Centenary programme, visit the website.

The Tower at War – 1914-18

A showcase in the White Tower at the Tower of London will be dedicated to telling the story of the Tower and its people during the First World War, with content updated annually – we caught up with Bridget Clifford, Keeper of Tower Armouries to tell us more about the upcoming display…

Not another exhibition commemorating the centenary of the outbreak of the First World War? Surely, you groan, there can’t be any new angles to be examined?

Well, yes there can. Contemplating the best way to commemorate the Tower Armouries’ connections with the First World War posed a number of challenges, not least the fact we have just completed a 4-year long re-display of all the White Tower galleries. An extensive re-exhibition was not an option. However we do have a unique record of this period specific to the site and its staff and deserving of a wider audience.  So it was decided to make a virtue of necessity and let other museums with the space and collections tell the greater story.  We would concentrate on the site itself and the events recorded in the Tower Minute Book (I.189) and Diary (I.188).

The Tower Minute book and Diary continue the tradition of the books of Receipts and Issues kept by Storekeepers from the time of the earliest Tower stores.  On his appointment as Curator in 1913 Charles ffoulkes expanded their content to reflect the wider aspects of the job.  From 1917 he expanded his Tower remit to include the acquisition of current war material by becoming the first Curator of the National War Museum (today’s Imperial War Museum).  Fortunately the terms and conditions of his original Armouries’ role were sufficiently flexible to allow him to continue his oversight of The Tower’s historic military equipment at the same time.

ffoulkes at his desk in the Flamstead Tower 23 September 1916 © Royal Armouries

ffoulkes at his desk in the Flamstead Tower 23 September 1916 © Royal Armouries

Interesting as the archival record is, it is not in itself an ideal display material.  So as well as selected extracts from the Minute book set on a panel, a central case expands one of the stories using objects from the Tower history collection.  Both these displays will change annually.  In 2014 the spotlight falls on William Henry Noble Buckingham – local lad and Foreman of the Armouries.  His story ends with a 22-gun salute above his grave in Ilford cemetery. The focus for 2015 is Fernando Buschmann, violinist and convicted German spy, whose story ends early on the morning of 19 October 1915 with the volley of a firing squad at the Tower.

The display is contextualised by means of an introductory panel outlining the war-time visitor experience and the main characters.

Over the next 4 years we invite you to enter the surreal world of the Tower at war.  While fighting raged on the continent, it was business as usual at the Tower despite the threat of Zeppelin raids, in fact from 1916 the offer expanded with the whole of the White Tower opening as a museum. At the same time as German spies were shot in the early morning, foreign dignitaries were feted and shown round the spoils of earlier European conflict during the day. Most of all welcome to the world of Charles ffoulkes – one of the major shapers of our current perception of the First World War.  If you can’t make it to the Tower, then please follow the Curator goes to War blog.

Blogger: Bridget Clifford, Keeper of Tower Armouries

For details of the Royal Armouries’ First World War Centenary programme visit the website.

‘The Shot Heard around the World’…

Historical rumours claim that the Archduke Franz Ferdinand owned a piece of silk, bullet-proof body armour, which he failed to wear on the day of his assassination.  Originally the brainchild of priest-turned-inventor Casimir Zeglen, this armour was composed of a combination of organic layers, most notably silk, which had bullet stopping capabilities.  By the early 1900s various different patents of these armours were being sold globally, and were marketed to heads of state and royalty.

We spoke to Lisa Traynor, First World War Researcher at Royal Armouries, about the on-going research undertaken by Britain’s oldest public museum to determine whether this vest could have changed the course of history…

What can you tell us about the significance of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand?
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie, on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo, is an event which will forever be associated with the outbreak of the First World War.  In 1914, political relationships in the Balkans were very fragile, most notably due to Austro-Hungary’s annexation of Bosnia.  War had been a possibility in this area of the globe for a number of years, due militarism, imperialism, nationalism and the alliance systems. During the late 19th century/early 20th century, many heads of state and public figures had been assassinated, none of which had led to war. The assassination of the Archduke was the final ‘spark’ which ignited these existing European tensions, thus catapulting the world into the age of modern warfare.

FWW Fire Arm Shoot- April 2014_86

Royal Armouries has had various samples of this type of silk armour made, from the specifications laid out in the original patents of the invention © Royal Armouries

Why did Royal Armouries feel it important to carry out this research?
In my previous role as Firearms Documentation Assistant, I stumbled across a Browning Model 1910 pistol (the same type used to assassinate the Archduke). In examining its serial number I realised it was only 516 away from the actual pistol used in the assassination and would probably have been manufactured around the same time. This made me think about the ‘what if?’ scenario surrounding the death of the Archduke. If he hadn’t been killed, would the war have been delayed? I then considered the body armour from the turn of the 20th century and how this might have been achieved.

After months of independent research in international archives and with the assistance of international academics on the subject, I discovered that it was entirely possible that the Archduke may have owned a piece of body armour.  Our First World War team thought it would be interesting to test the theory of silk body armour against the Browning Model 1910, to understand the ballistic capabilities of 19th century body armour against 20th century firepower.

How was the research carried out?
Royal Armouries has had various samples of this type of silk armour made, from the specifications laid out in the original patents of the invention.  We have tested the body armour against pistols of varying calibres, at the National Firearms Centre in Leeds. The process has tried to replicate the assassination as closely as possible.

What is the most interesting thing you found out?
I don’t want to reveal too much before the opening of the exhibition however I can report that silk does have bullet stopping capabilities!

We have tested the body armour against pistols of varying calibres, at the National Firearms Centre in Leeds © Royal Armouries

We have tested the body armour against pistols of varying calibres, at the National Firearms Centre in Leeds © Royal Armouries

What will people see and be able to discover when visiting the exhibition?
The exhibition will explain to the visitor how these bullet proof vests were constructed, it will show footage of our experiments against the Browning pistol, and we will be exhibiting one of our silk vest samples. I am also doing a talk in September, which will go into more depth about Franz Ferdinand’s reasons for possibly purchasing one of these armours, and it will take an in depth look at our experiments in the National Firearms Centre. This research is still on-going, so by September more evidence may have come to light.

What other things in particular have you enjoyed / found most interesting or been surprised at during your research?
This research has both surprised and disappointed me at times. It has been interesting to discover what lurks at the bottom of historical archives around the world! It has also allowed me to connect with other international academics around the world, on the subject of Arms and Armour. Most notably, it has allowed me to give the public insight into the exciting historical research which the curatorial department at Royal Armouries achieves on a frequent basis.

Lisa Traynor (First World War researcher), test firing a Vickers Mk. II belt fed machine gun (XXIV.8841) at the National Firearms Centre, Royal Armouries Museum, Leeds, UK, 29th March, 2014  © Royal Armouries

Lisa Traynor (First World War researcher), test firing a Vickers Mk. II belt fed machine gun (XXIV.8841) at the National Firearms Centre, 29th March, 2014 © Royal Armouries

Blogger: Lisa Traynor, First World War Researcher, Royal Armouries

Lisa is delivering a talk at the Royal Armouries Museum in Leeds on September 24, which will shed fresh light on the issue, and reveal the results from the upcoming tests. For tickets, priced £5, and more information, visit the website.

Lisa is also presenting an international paper focused on the research at the International Committee for the History of Technology’s Conference in Romania, which runs from July 29 to August 2.

For more information regarding Royal Armouries’ First World War Centenary programme, visit www.royalarmouries.org/events/first-world-war-centenary