Fake Spotting – Top Tips

Fakers and forgers have always sought to deceive collectors with cleverly constructed copies, but would you be able to tell the difference? Standard thickness plates and screw threads, and spots of metal and scratches from electric or gas welders and evidence of the use of grinding tools are all obvious signs of modern methods. If the clues are more difficult to spot, scientific analysis through x-rays and microscopes can help to reveal the underlying composition of an object.

Duck's Foot Pistol

Duck's Foot Pistol

Here are our top tips on how to spot a fake:

1. Does it work?

Do visors lift as they are supposed to, do hinges open and close, do gun mechanisms operate? Often, logic and common sense are lost in the fabrication of fakes!

2. Does it use the correct materials?

Bronze is often a good indicator; old bronze is yellower, whilst more modern bronze tends to have a reddish hue.

3. Is it like the real thing?

For example, Samuel Pratt’s fake helmets were often much bigger, heavier and more intractable than the genuine articles. It was often impossible to actually wear them due to their weight and shape, and the vision slits were often in the wrong places.

4. Is the style of decoration of the right period and the right subject matter?

Modern aesthetics often feature in later fabrications, particularly in the decoration, as ideas about what looks good change over time.

5. Does it exhibit the right amount of wear/damage?

For example, with Japanese swords, original scabbards are often discoloured/blackened inside from use over time. Modern reproductions are often convincing on the outside, but remain clean on the inside.

6. Is the corrosion/patination in the right place?

These processes tend to reflect how an object has been used and kept over time, showing evidence of where it has been resting, whether it has been exposed, or kept in something, or damaged. With real objects, corrosion and patination is often localized and can be quite severe in places, with areas rusting away to almost nothing. With fakes, corrosion and patination is often evenly spread and too regular. Also, it is very rarely anything other than superficial; fakers are generally loath to spoil their hard work!

Blogger: Natasha Roberts, Curatorial Assistant

Horsing Around in Conservation

The Royal Armouries Conservation Department currently has a rather special visitor – a life-size model horse.  It was made by Felix Joubert, a well-known designer, cabinet-maker and arms and armour collector of his time. Joubert produced several horses of this type at his Chelsea studios and other examples can be found at the Wallace Collection, and Windsor Castle.

The papier-mache horse and Conservator Alex Cantrill

The papier-mache horse and Conservator Alex Cantrill

This particular horse was created to display the silver and engraved armour of Henry VIII.  Images from the Royal Armouries archive show the horse being craned in to the Tower of London in 1913.

Horse being winched into the Tower of London, 1913

Horse being winched into the Tower of London, 1913

Now painted grey, although originally black, the horse is posed as if being sharply reigned in. It is constructed of papier-mâché formed over an iron framework.  The model is currently in a bit of a sorry state; the tail and one of the ears have almost become detached, a chunk is missing from one of the hooves and there is damage to the papier-mâché surface all the way down the back.  There is evidence of previous repair work having been done but these repairs have now either failed or become very obvious.

Repairing the damage to the tail and ear

Repairing the damage to the tail and ear

During the horse’s stay in Conservation we will be correcting these previous repairs and stabilizing any damage.  Work has already begun on consolidating any flaky paintwork.  This is the first stage, making sure that the fragile surface paint layer is stable and held in place firmly before beginning any more in-depth conservation treatments. We’ll be reporting back on our four-legged friend’s progress so stay tuned!

Blogger: Alex Cantrill, Conservator

Ladies Defend St George's Honour

In celebration of St George’s Day the Royal Armouries has a special connection with local archery club the Bowmen of Adel. The Royal Armouries Arrow was commissioned by the Royal Armouries and presented to the Leeds based archery club in 2005.

Royal Armouries arrow

Royal Armouries arrow

The trophy arrow is housed within our Leeds Museum’s Tournament Gallery for safekeeping, then lent for presentation for the annual competition celebrating St George’s Day. The name of the winner and their club is inscribed on a shield which hangs from a chain attached to the arrow.

Arrow being collected from Royal Armouries Conservator Alex Cantrill by the Bowmen of Adel

Arrow being collected from Royal Armouries Conservator Alex Cantrill by the Bowmen of Adel

This year’s competition was held on Sunday 17 April with 48 archers and their longbows loosing an astonishing 4608 arrows during the tournament! When the scores are in the best 9 archers on the day then take part in a shoot off for the prestigious Royal Armouries arrow.

The shoot off consists of firing three arrows at three distinct targets – a wand like a barber’s pole, a 3D model of a pig and at an effigy of a knight behind an arrow split in a castle wall. For the past three years this competition has been won by a lady archer.

Blogger: Beckie Senior, Communications Officer

Power House – Object Conservation 4

Object: Uniform Coat of the Duke of Wellington c.1835 (xvi.8)

Blogger: Suzanne Dalewicz-Kitto, Conservation Manager

This blue cloth uniform with white lining and scarlet facing was worn by the Duke of Wellington when he was Constable of the Tower of London. It has gilt buttons bearing a miniature of the White Tower in silver, and epaulettes made of gold and silver thread.  The coat is in reasonable condition with only a few small holes and surface grazing of the cloth, probably caused by moths.  The main area of interest to our Conservators were the tarnished metal threads and spangles (sequins) on the epaulettes.

Duke of Wellington's uniform

Duke of Wellington's uniform coat

Metal threads are fragile at the best of time.  Some are made from twisted fine metal wire and others are formed by twisting wire around a cotton or silk thread.  When applying treatments to remove the tarnish Conservators have to be careful not to leave residues behind that will ‘rot’ the thread over time.  On these epaulettes there are eight different types of thread design including: dull purl, pearl purl, bright check and Lizardine close.

Detail of the left epaulette before and after treatment

Detail of the left epaulette before and after treatment

The tarnish was removed by gently cleaning the surfaces with a damp swab using a mixture of carefully chosen chemicals.  This was carried out under a microscope to make sure no metal threads were being pulled away from the epaulette.  Residues where removed again by careful swabbing using deionised water – very pure water that has had any minerals filtered out of it.

This object will be featured in our forthcoming Power House exhibition at theTower of London which opens on Saturday 2nd April. Find out more about the work of our Conservation Team on our website.

Power House – Object Conservation 3

Object: Flintlock Land Service Musket (1715) XII.80

Blogger: Nyssa Mildwaters, Conservation

This musket is one of several experimental firearms which are to be included in the Power House exhibition. The musket was designed and made by the gunmaker Richard Wolldridge who worked at the Tower from about 1704 until 1749. Although this particular pattern or design was not issued to the military its does show the general form which British military firearms were beginning to take in the early 18th century.

Flintlock Land Service Musket (1715) XII.80

Flintlock Land Service Musket (1715) XII.80

The musket was is a very good condition prior to entering the Conservation Lab with only a small amount of old yellowed oil visible on the lock. Even though the exterior of the musket didn’t need a great deal of remedial work the lock mechanism was carefully removed from the musket, after of course checking that the firearm wasn’t loaded.

When working with firearms we will always, where possible, remove the lock mechanism in order to check the condition of the lock’s interior as well as the underside of the barrel. Often the interior of a lock can look very different to its external appearance, with combinations of dirt, old oil or wax and corrosion all potentially present.

Flintlock Land Service Musket (1715) XII.80

Flintlock Land Service Musket (1715) XII.80

Luckily in this case the interior of the lock was in a very good condition with no further cleaning or disassembly needed. The musket was therefore reassembled, making sure that the screws were replaced in exactly the same order they were removed. This is good practise as particularly with older firearms the screws threads will have been hand cut so using the wrong screw can damage both the screw itself as well as the internal thread.

Once the old yellowed oil was cleaned from the musket’s lock using solvent swabs the metallic sections of the object were given a thin coating of Micro Crystalline wax providing a protective layer. Finally the object was photographed and packaged for transport to the Tower of London.

This object will be featured in our forthcoming Power House exhibition at theTower of London. Find out more about the work of our Conservation Team on our website.

Power House – Object Conservation 2

Object: Brass belt plate (mid 19th century) I.979 ii

Blogger: Nyssa Mildwaters, Conservation

It’s always nice to work on an object which can be related back to a particular person in history. This belt plate is one of a pair of objects relating to the Board of Ordnance’s only identified rat-catcher, Richard Dean.

The plate is the only surviving portion of Dean’s uniform and he can be seen wearing it in a portrait which is to be displayed alongside the plate. The brass belt plate is engraved with a rat shown sitting below the arms of the Board of Ordnance, whilst around the edge the inscription reads ‘Richard Dean, Chislehurst, Rat Destroyer to the Honorable Board of Ordnance’.

Belt Plate

Belt Plate

In order to make the letters and images engraved on the plate stand out a black enamel-like material was originally applied to the object. Unfortunately over time this material has cracked and in some areas has been lost. Where damage to the enamel had occurred traces of a powdery green corrosion could also be seen.  The powdery corrosion was carefully removed from the damaged lettering and other areas of decoration using a scalpel whilst under magnification. Once clean it was necessary to stabilise the enamel to prevent any further cracking or loss, this was done by running a thin adhesive solution into the damaged areas.

Before and after conservation

Before and after conservation

In addition to the problems with the lettering several finger and palm prints were clearly visible and spread across the plate. When we handle metal objects with our bare hands the sweat and oils on our fingers are transferred to the objects and if not swiftly removed can become etched into the objects’ surface. Sadly there is no way of removing finger prints once they are etched into a metal surface without removing the object’s top layer at the same time. Once fingerprints are imprinted they are generally there for good, which is why conservators always ask people to wear gloves when handling or moving objects.

This object will be featured in our forthcoming Power House exhibition at the Tower of London. Find out more about the work of our Conservation Team on our website.

Power House – Object Conservation

Prior to installation of a new exhibition the objects which will appear on display have to be carefully cared for by the Conservation Team. Nyssa Mildwaters, one of the Royal Armouries Conservators, will be blogging about several interesting items which will soon be on display at the Tower of London.

One of the more unusual looking objects being conserved for the Power House exhibition is a three stemmed candlestick.  The main body of the candlestick is made from metal weapon parts which twisted and fused together during the blaze which destroyed the Grand Storehouse at the Tower of London on the 30th of October 1841.

Candlestick made from debris of the fire at the Tower of London in 1841

Candlestick made from debris of the fire at the Tower of London in 1841

Large numbers of weapons and other historic objects were destroyed by the fire, however in the weeks that followed tables were set up in what was left of the building and pieces of bizarrely twisted and shaped metal debris were sold off to members of the public at prices of up to £1 each.

This particular piece of debris was converted into a candlestick by drilling into the lump and then screwing on the three decorative stems, which as you can see have a very different appearance to the twisted and misshapen metal below. Although it is not possible to identify all the metal components which fused together forming the centre of the candlestick, yet to one side there is still clearly visible the remains of the lock or firing mechanism from a flintlock rifle.

Very little remedial conservation work was actually needed to get this object ready for display as it was already in pretty good condition if a little dusty. The dust and any dirt were removed using solvents swabs, after which the whole object was coated with a protective layer of Micro-Crystalline Wax. This was achieved by using a technique called ‘hot waxing’, where the wax is warmed during application to give a better and more even coating.  With conservation complete the candlestick is now awaiting packaging and transport to the Tower of London, ready for display.