Skyfall – Making sense of Bond’s PPK…

After the release of the latest James Bond movie, Jonathan Ferguson, Curator of Firearms at Royal Armouries talks guns and gadgets and poses the question – does Bond’s PPK still make sense?

Gadgets, cars and firearms have always been part of the Bond package, from novelties like the famous ‘Golden Gun’ to Bond’s own personal issue pistol. Most famously, 007 traditionally carries the Walther PPK (Polizei Pistole Kriminal), though from ‘Tomorrow Never Dies’ until Daniel Craig’s first outing in ‘Casino Royale’, he adopts the bigger, plastic-framed Walther P99. In keeping with Skyfall’s ‘back to basics’ approach, the PPK appears again, this time with a biometric set of grips to prevent Bond’s enemies from turning his own weapon against him.

Walther Model PPK pistol, German (PR.12124)
© Royal Armouries Museum

Some early PPKs, like the above example, were made for the Nazis during the Second World War. It is perhaps ironic that one of post-war Britain’s greatest fictional heroes be armed with the same weapon.

Once a personal choice, it seems that Bond’s preferred sidearm has made a comeback as the standard issue sidearm of MI6. Though unlikely to be the case in real life today, the slightly larger PP is indeed an official British military issue pistol, and one has seen use by Special Forces. It will only be replaced as a personal defence weapon for aircrew this year by the new L113A1 Glock pistol that is set to replace the standard-issue Brownings and SIGs in current use.

Bond’s own fictional relationship with the PPK came about in an interesting example of a fan being able to influence a production design choice. In the 1950s, firearms expert Geoffrey Boothroyd wrote to Bond author Ian Fleming, with tongue only slightly in cheek, criticising his initial choice of a .25 calibre Beretta and suggesting instead the now-iconic PPK. (Read the letter here)

Boothroyd became Bond’s unofficial armourer, and as the spin-off movie franchise took off, became immortalised as the now famous character of ‘Q’ (for ‘Quartermaster’). Q returns in ‘Skyfall’ as a nerdy cyber-warrior who places more faith in computers than in firearms. Well, as this change would suggest, times have indeed moved on since 1955, and I like to think that Mr Boothroyd would now find the PPK to be rather out of date. It’s low-powered, low-capacity, and excessively heavy when compared with more modern choices for a concealable covert-operations weapon. Likewise, the .357 Magnum revolver preferred by Boothroyd at that time makes little sense today, being heavy, hard-recoiling, difficult to conceal, limited to six rounds, and no more capable against the typical hench-person than most modern semi-automatic pistols. More of a ‘Dirty Harry’ than a James Bond gun!

So, what should Bond carry next time around? It’s not publicly known what operatives of the real-life Secret Intelligence Service now carry, but as the similar P228 and the larger P226 are British military issue, the SIG-Sauer P229 makes a lot of sense and, if I were following in Boothroyd’s footsteps, would be my own recommendation. It’s more accurate and powerful than the venerable PPK, as well as packing twice as many rounds into its magazine. The downside is that it’s larger and heavier than the tiny PPK. Smaller options include the Ruger LCP9, the Kahr CM9, or another SIG, the P239. All of these are similarly light and powerful, firing the 9mm Parabellum cartridge rather than the 9mm Short or the even weaker 7.65mm Browning cartridges available for the PPK. The same goes for perhaps the best compromise choice, the slimline PPS – Walther’s spiritual successor to the classic PPK and the weapon chosen for last year’s 007 novel ‘Carte Blanche’.

Personally, considering the modern concealable holsters and specialist tailors available that would still enable Bond to wear his best tuxedo, I would have to advise him to opt for the P229, pictured below:

SIG-Sauer P229 blowback, double, single of DOA action, manufactured by SIG Arms/J.P. Sauer & Sohn GmbH, Switzerland. (PR.8188)
© Royal Armouries Museum

But perhaps, like the Aston Martin DB5, the classic elegant lines of the PPK are what keep filmmakers coming back for more. Due to the high-pressure rounds they fire, as well as modern fashion, all of the modern alternatives above are chunky-looking by comparison, even if they hide just as well under clothing. They really don’t make ‘em like they used to!

You can see a PPK along with some of the other iconic movie firearms and covert equipment in our Self-Defence Gallery here at Royal Armouries Museum, Leeds.

Blogger: Jonathan Ferguson, Curator of Firearms

 

The Axe and the Head

Kathleen McIlvenna, Curatorial Assistant – Tower Collections, tries not to lose her head in the mystery of the heading axe…

Recently I received an enquiry regarding an axe; could we identify it as a heading axe? Well if anyone could, you’d think the Tower of London could. However, identifying a heading axe is a lot more difficult than you would think.

Indeed, the shape of an axe head can tell you a lot about what an axe was used for. From Coachmaker Axes (clue’s in the name) to Blocking Axes (often used in shipbuilding), axes were often designed as tools of trade rather than weapons. To discover their uses we often turned to trade directories or the handy Salaman’s Dictionary of Woodwork Tools.

Nevertheless, cutting heads off isn’t normally named as a particular use and ‘Executioner’ isn’t generally the sort of trade these works are discussing. Depictions of public executions aren’t always reliable either. Artistic impressions are sometimes made long after the execution with no way of knowing if the artist attended any public executions. The image below of Lady Jane Grey’s execution was actually created in the 19th century. Furthermore written descriptions don’t tend to focus on the design of the axe when describing a public figure’s last few moments.

Engraving by George Cruikshank showing the execution of Lady Jane Grey on Tower Green in 1554. From The Tower of London / by W.H. Ainsworth (1845)
Copyright: Board of Trustees of the Armouries

Consequently, provenance is our best indication. Beheading was an execution preserved for the rich and (previously) powerful. The average execution involved hanging and if you were particularly treacherous you were hung, drawn and quartered. Moreover, it was primarily the English who favoured an axe beheading, whereas the executioners on the continent preferred the sword. Not trusting the axe, and perhaps an English executioner, Anne Boleyn requested a swordsman and sword to be shipped over from France especially for her execution.

Heading axe. Probably English, 16th century
Copyright: Board of Trustees of the Armouries

The Tower of London’s heading axe is traditionally believed to be one of four that we know were stored here in the 17th century, but we don’t have details about its use. We actually know more about the block it is displayed with, which was used for the execution of Lord Lovat in 1747, but that is a different story. So in conclusion, to know if you have a heading axe you need to know where your axe head comes from.

Blogger: Kathleen McIlvenna, Curatorial Assistant – Tower Collections

Behind the Scenes: Kings of Cloth of Gold

We spoke to Set Designer, Ruth Paton about having history at her fingertips as she prepares the scenery, props and costumes inspired by the Royal Armouries collection for Kings of Cloth of Gold.

Emanuel Brierley as King Francis I and Dominic Goodwin as King Henry VIII

What inspiration have you taken from the Royal Armouries’ collection?
The amazing thing for me was being able to see the actual armour that Henry VIII wore. As it is a complete head to toe body shield with no part of him showing, you can really imagine that he is inside there. It was moulded to his body and so you get a feeling of his physical presence. There is also a beautiful tent on display, a replica of one in the famous panting. It is very impressive and a good reminder of the display of power shown from both sides. We have to come up with something that alludes to the scope and grandeur of that scene.

What props are being used from the Royal Armouries?
We have generously been allowed to borrow some gorgeous and authentic costumes and I think we will be borrowing some weaponry, swords and daggers too.

Tell us about the set and costumes.
It is quite a difficult brief. I must provide the different locations that the text demands, demonstrate the vastness and wealth of the tents and palaces both nations brought with them, whilst at the same time design something that can be put up and down quickly on the tour. It also has to be versatile enough to fit into a whole range of different performance spaces, from village halls to proscenium arches. So, we have come up with something golden and tented, which can be manipulated by the actors on stage to imply different locations. The costumes have come from the Royal Armouries and the Royal Shakespeare Company and are as sumptuous as you would expect for the early Tudor period.

What does it mean to you to have the resources of a museum’s historical collection at your disposal?
I consider it a great privilege to have behind the scenes access to the museum and it’s staff. Meeting Karen Watts, Senior Curator of Armour, was completely inspirational. Her knowledge and passion was infectious. I was interested in her description of handling historic artifacts and the art of “reading” them. She spoke about the importance of passing on her knowledge. In a far lesser way, I also feel responsible for describing history although I must admit to using a huge pinch of artistic license- my world is that of make believe after all.

What stage of preparation are you at now?
Well, I am writing this from the train to Stratford Upon Avon where I have an afternoon in the costume store looking for suitable things. Scale drawings are on my desk at home ready to be sent to our production manager Steve and I have fabric samples in my bag of the fabric for the tents as I am trying to make a decision.

Kings of Cloth of Gold by Angus & Ross Theatre Company, premieres at the Royal Armouries on 29 September 2012.

For more information and to book tickets visit our website here.

Behind the scenes: Kings of Cloth of Gold

We will be giving you an exclusive glimpse behind the scenes of a new production, Kings of Cloth of Gold by Angus & Ross Theatre Company, which premieres at the Royal Armouries Museum in Leeds in September.

Emanuel Brierley as King Frances I and Dominic Goodwin as King Henry VIII

Emanuel Brierley tells us what its all about and why the Royal Armouries makes the perfect stage…

There are three of us at the heart of Angus & Ross Theatre Company: Em Whitfield Brooks (director) Dominic Goodwin and myself (actors).

Kings of Cloth of Gold is the fourth show that Goodwin and I have worked on together and the third project for Em, we work really well together and bring different things to the creative mix. As they say “three is the magic number”.

Kings of Cloth of Gold, funded by Arts Council Englandis an exciting new play written by Tony Lidington. The year is 1520. In this brand new family comedy, Henry VIII of England meets Frances I of France at the most magnificent tournament ever held: the ‘Field of Cloth of Gold’. (So many pavilions were made of costly gold cloth that it became the byword for extravagance) These two kings compete to outdo each other in displays of wealth, wit, feasting and sporting prowess. Each king is proud, intelligent, and the epitome of chivalry. But who will eventually win this battle of vanity?

What makes a man? 
Why does he do what he does? 
How absurd and terrifying battle is…”

We’ve been fortunate enough to consolidate a partnership with Royal Armouries and have taken inspiration from their Tournament gallery, which houses Henry IIIV original suits of armour and is well worth seeing.

We’re really excited by what this partnership offers, as all their expertise, curatorial advice and fight training will help to create a gripping, funny and interesting piece of theatre and something I’m really looking forward to starting. The fact that we’re able to rehearse fights in Royal Armouries Tournament gallery will add to the atmosphere and create a buzz and interest around the show, right from the very beginning. I’m sure that the production’s premiere at Royal Armouries will be incredible both for the audience and us, knowing we are surrounded by such historic artifacts.

Make sure you don’t miss it.

Blogger: Emanuel Brierley, Angus & Ross Theatre Company

Kings of Cloth of Gold
The Bury Theatre, Royal Armouries, Leeds
Saturday 29 September, 2pm & 7.30pm
Sunday 30 September, 2pm

To book your tickets visit our website.

Introducing Other Ranks…

Sound artist, Amie Slavin, brings the multi-sensory, sound-based installation, Other Ranks, to the Royal Armouries Museum in Leeds, this November to form part of our Remembrance events.

Other Ranks by Amie Slavin comes to the Royal Armouries in November 2012.

Amie gives us an insight into what to expect…

Other Ranks is a project aiming to tell the civilian public how life is for ‘squaddies’ and helping to honour the sacrifices made by those serving in the British Army.

The installation will feature the stories of current and ex-soldiers, who have been on active service in dangerous places. Their stories will be played out of 16 speakers, interspersed with extracts from written sources, from classic fiction and well-known poetry, to unpublished thoughts of the rank and file.

The endless parade of marching feet, drill, handling weapons, tackling an assault course and training in urban warfare will also be heard. These sounds intend to evoke thoughts of the people inside the marching boots; each is a human being, a man prepared to give his life in combat, each is the hero of his own story. These sounds move and swell around us, illustrating the unimaginably large number of people who have gone to war under a British flag.

How many of us ever really consider what it has meant, through the centuries, for a hundred, a thousand, half a million troops to be killed in the various theatres of war? Each broken body is the culmination of a person’s life, their hopes and dreams. Raising the question of whether these men are a breed apart – or ordinary people, stepping up to do an extraordinary job?

Empty boots will stand in the space, as a further reminder of the people, mostly men, who have worn those boots and made that ultimate promise to their country. How many boots have been left standing empty, through the generations?

Under your feet, as you move around the space, the entire floor will be covered with photographs, pictures of people, thousands of them, all overlapping and layering, an apparently numberless throng. Many of the people in the photos on the floor are in uniform. The uniforms vary endlessly, but each one contains a unique person. Among the uniformed folk you will also find other people, some are the mothers, the sisters and the children. Others are the farmers, the entertainers and the cooks. They are all the victims of war; nobody is exempt; the floor is covered with pictures of humanity; those who can be shot, bombed, diseased or bereaved.

We honour and commemorate the lives lost in wars – the officers, the civilians and, centrally, the ever-marching Other Ranks.

For more information about Other Ranks, or to donate your own photographs or old military boots, please visit Amie’s website.

Missing Link…

Amongst a sea of metal links, Kate Perks, Conservation Intern, tells us about getting a rider’s coat of mail ready for a trip to the British Library.

Kate Perks, Conservation Intern, works on the coat of mail.

I am currently working on an Indian, 17th century coat of mail, taken off one of our horse and riders in the Oriental Gallery, Leeds. This is going on display at the British Library in November. At the moment my biggest challenge is to work out how to fix a broken metal plate called a lamellae. I’m doing experiments to see if I can fix it in a less intrusive way than previously.  I am trying different adhesives. A couple of my previous tests have failed but the third test seems to be the winner. I have weighted it to see how strong it is, how much weight it will hold and how long for.

The lamellae has split before and been mended with a metal plate and rivet but it wasn’t reversible and it has failed. I’m now trying to find a different method that is reversible but will be strong enough. We have to be very careful with the adhesives we use, again because should there be problems we need to be able to remove it. We can’t use super glue, for instance because once that’s stuck, that’s it.

The coat of mail is made up of different sizes of links. There are larger links in the areas you need more protection or are most likely to be attacked, because they’re the strongest and the thickest metal. As you don’t need that thickness throughout the length, at the bottom the links are much smaller, which makes it lighter but they still offer some protection. I had to look carefully through the thousands of links, which make up the coat of mail to see which needed replacing, so far I have put in 12 large, 2 medium and 3 small links.  It’s probably going to take me another 3 days to finish, but what’s slowing it down is the experiments I have been doing with the adhesives. I have already cleaned it, and finally it will need treating with a protective coating to help stop it corroding.

The coat of mail, along with its rider and horse will be going on loan to the British Library from 8 November.

To find out more about the Conservation Department visit our website.

Blogger: Kate Perks, Conservation Intern

Kate’ll Fix It…

Kate Perks is on a 12-month internship in the Royal Armouries’ Conservation department. She talks about getting to grips with firearms, handling holsters and why there’s never a dull day in conservation.

Kate Perks, Conservation Intern

I have always had an interest in history and my path into conservation started after studying History of Decorative Arts and Crafts at Brighton University. I knew I wanted to work closely with historical objects, I am a hands-on person and I like to physically work with objects, so conservation ticked all the boxes. The element of the job I enjoy the most is getting something that is broken and fixing it or getting something that is looking a bit sad and making it happy again! There are also challenges of the job, as we must make sure everything we do is reversible, the methods used do not harm the object and will last.  Therefore if another conservator comes across the object 50 years later, when technology has moved on and processes have changed, they can undo my work. It’s not just simply fixing things.  It is also about making sure the methods used can be reversed, using materials that have been tested and proven not to react with the object, such as making sure it won’t cause it to corrode, and that the materials are stable enough that they will carry on doing their job for decades to come.

I recently had my first experience of firearms with the Matchlock guns that are going on loan at the Small Arms Centre for Excellence, Nizwar, Oman, in October. This was a challenge because you have to make sure they’re not loaded and I had to learn about the firing mechanism.  It was interesting getting to understand how they work.

I have also been getting a handle on holsters, I was presented with a box of around 18, all jumbled up, so I have been going through them and looking at the best ways to store them. At the moment I am trying to work out how they can keep their shape, even just things like lining them with tissue can work. I’ve also been doing some research to find out what type of leather they are made from. This depends on the hair follicles, and how they are positioned, from that you can work out whether it’s leather from a cow or a sheep. This is found with a little microscope, with a light on it, you place it over the object, with LED lights, the image appears on the computer, and you can then take a photograph to study more closely.

After my internship, I would love to get a full time position here or at another museum but at the moment I am making the most of every opportunity.

To find out more about the Conservation Department visit our website here.

Find out why Kate is searching for the missing link in a coat of mail in her next blog instalment…

Blogger: Kate Perks, Conservation Intern