Painted Sallet

Over the last six weeks we’ve had two students from the University of Huddersfield, Jonathon and Vikki, in residence within our Curatorial Department. Here’s an object which caught Vikki’s eye whilst working behind the scenes.

German Sallet

German Sallet

This German Sallet dates from about 1490, from the early 13th century to the early 16th century helmets were commonly decorated with paint, and by the end of the 14th century, whole jousting armours were painted black to prevent rust. Painting was a very cheap way to decorate armour, but only a few examples of painted helmets survive today. Painting a helmet was also a good way of easily recognising people on the battlefield.

German Sallet

German Sallet

This Sallet, the popular choice of helmet in Germany throughout the 15th century, is remarkably covered with painted patterns. The upper part of the sallet is covered in a flame pattern and the lower part including the visor has a red, white and green chequered design. Inside the squares are stars, portcullises and an interlace pattern in red and white.

Blogger: Vikki Bielby, Student Work Placement – Curatorial Department

Fort Nelson Re-development

Fort Nelson houses the Royal Armouries’ collection of artillery, with over 350 big guns and historic cannon on display. The Fort was built on the direction of Victorian Prime Minister Lord Palmerston, as part of a chain of fortifications protecting the great Naval harbour of Portsmouth and its Royal Dockyard from French invasion – a fear that never materialised.

Panorama of visitor centre under construction

Panorama of visitor centre under construction

Fort Nelson is nearing the end of a £3.5m project to transform the heritage site into a museum fit for the 21st century. Part funded by a Heritage Lottery Fund grant, the project will include spectacular new galleries; visitor centre and extended free parking; new modern café; and state of the art learning centre.

Lower Gallery Artist's Impression

Lower Gallery Artist's Impression

The new glass-sided galleries will showcase the most impressive and iconic Big Guns, covering the most colourful periods of history from every corner of the globe. Key exhibits will include Saddam Hussein’s infamous Supergun, and the Great Turkish Bombard of 1464, that once protected The Dardanelles.

As the project nears completion over the coming weeks we’ll be following our Projects Team throughout the closing stages of the redevelopment.

Fake, Forgery or Replica?

Ever wondered how sneaky forgers managed to dupe and deceive the experts with fake arms and armour? Our Curators Emeritus Ian Bottomley and Peter Smithurst in their Fakes, Forgeries and Replicas Seminar sought to uncover some of the forger’s duplicitous tactics.

Fakes and forgeries often become more prolific when the demand and prices are high; consequently, the gothic revival and the rise of romanticism during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries provided ideal conditions for the fakes market to thrive as the craze for medieval pieces grew.

Examples of Samuel Pratt's handiwork

Examples of Samuel Pratt's handiwork

One of the most infamous fabricators of fakes of the 19th century was Samuel Pratt of Bond Street. Pratt was originally a vendor of antique furniture, but he colluded with a metalworker called Grimshaw and began to deal in ‘antique’ arms and armour. Some of the armour that he sold was real, but much was fake, being either copies or ‘improved’ items, such as a fifteenth-century sallet which Pratt modified into a basinet in around 1850.

Blogger: Natasha Roberts, Curatorial Assistant

Collections Up Close May

The seasons have finally changed from the cold snowy winter to summer sunshine, at least some of the time. Reflecting these changes there is an armour in the Royal Armouries’ collection which is decorated in colours depicting the changes of the seasons.

Japanese Armour

Japanese Armour

Laced in white at the top for snow, with a band of pink below representing the cherry blossom of spring, below that is green for summer and finally orange representing the maples of autumn. The richly decorated Japanese armour dates from 1850 and is on display in our Leeds Museum’s Oriental Gallery.

Detailing showing the change in seasons

Detailing showing the change in seasons

The national flag of Japan features a red disk in the centre representing the sun. The flag is commonly flag is commonly known as Hinomaru (“sun disc”) and officially as Nisshōki (“sun-mark flag”). Although long considered the national flag of Japan it was only in 1999 that it was officially designated.

Blogger: Angela Clare, Researcher

Gory Guests

Students from Leeds City College’s Theatrical and Media Makeup Diploma course visited the Royal Armouries with a rather gory mission this week. As part of their assessments the Royal Armouries asked the Leeds students to prepare and carry out special effects make-up for a medieval battle scene.

Leeds City College students prepare their 'victim'

Leeds City College students prepare their 'victim'

Prior to their visit to the Museum students had prepared by researching the historical period, costumes, props and wounds. On the day the students also received an introductory lecture from our Curator of Historic European Edged Weapons Bob Woosnam-Savage on Medieval Weapons and Wounds.

Students pose demonstrating their make-up

Students pose demonstrating their make-up

Some groups had evidently spent a lot of time researching their projects and produced some great work on the day, with some fabulously gruesome results!

Blogger: Beckie Senior, Communications Officer

Are they real?

Dotted around the galleries of our Leeds Museum are a number of life-sized dioramas depicting animals in war, sport and hunting poses. One of the most commonly asked questions the gallery staff hear is “Are they real?”

Horse models in the War Gallery

Horse models in the War Gallery

This is because the horses, elephants, tiger and rhinoceros are all incredibly lifelike, and do look like fine examples of taxidermy. However, the animals in question are not real, but are excellent examples of the model-maker’s art.

These photos were taken during the building phase of our Leeds Museum, which opened in 1996, and show the models under construction. The various models were made by several different workshops. Most of the animals were produced by Gerry Embleton and David Hayes.

Model rhinoceros being created

Model rhinoceros being created

The true craftsmanship is in the detail – every fold of skin on the elephant’s hide or hair of the horse’s mane is modeled perfectly. Sometimes it feels as if they might actually leap off their displays and gallop off into the distance!

Bloggers: Stuart Ivinson, Library Assistant and Chris Streek, Image Librarian

Horsing Around in Conservation

The Royal Armouries Conservation Department currently has a rather special visitor – a life-size model horse.  It was made by Felix Joubert, a well-known designer, cabinet-maker and arms and armour collector of his time. Joubert produced several horses of this type at his Chelsea studios and other examples can be found at the Wallace Collection, and Windsor Castle.

The papier-mache horse and Conservator Alex Cantrill

The papier-mache horse and Conservator Alex Cantrill

This particular horse was created to display the silver and engraved armour of Henry VIII.  Images from the Royal Armouries archive show the horse being craned in to the Tower of London in 1913.

Horse being winched into the Tower of London, 1913

Horse being winched into the Tower of London, 1913

Now painted grey, although originally black, the horse is posed as if being sharply reigned in. It is constructed of papier-mâché formed over an iron framework.  The model is currently in a bit of a sorry state; the tail and one of the ears have almost become detached, a chunk is missing from one of the hooves and there is damage to the papier-mâché surface all the way down the back.  There is evidence of previous repair work having been done but these repairs have now either failed or become very obvious.

Repairing the damage to the tail and ear

Repairing the damage to the tail and ear

During the horse’s stay in Conservation we will be correcting these previous repairs and stabilizing any damage.  Work has already begun on consolidating any flaky paintwork.  This is the first stage, making sure that the fragile surface paint layer is stable and held in place firmly before beginning any more in-depth conservation treatments. We’ll be reporting back on our four-legged friend’s progress so stay tuned!

Blogger: Alex Cantrill, Conservator

Collections Up Close Special

With Royal Wedding celebrations in full swing this month we’re exploring armours which relate to one of the most influential marriages in British history. The Royal Armouries at the Tower of London is home to ornate armours which belonged to King Henry VIII and commemorate his marriage to Katherine of Aragon.

Henry was crowned and married Katherine in 1509 when he was 17 years old and she was 23. Katherine had previously been married to his elder brother, Prince Arthur who had died. However, Henry and Katherine’s union ended when after 24 years together Henry sought an annulment of their marriage in his quest for a male heir instigating one of the most turbulent periods in British history.

Henry VIII's armour and detail of tonlet decoration

Henry VIIIs armour and detail of tonlet decoration

The suit of armour is decorated with Katherine’s pomegranates and also has a border of intertwined letters H and K for Henry and Katherine. The armour also features scenes from the lives of the royal couple’s patron saints, St George and St Barbara.

Horse armour made for Henry VIII

Horse armour made for Henry VIII

This ornately engraved, gilded and embossed horse armour was a gift to Henry from Emperor Maximilian I, the ornamentation features both her badge, the pomegranate, and Henry’s Tudor Rose. The elaborately decorated suit of armour and this horse armour was partly imported from Flanders and some parts were probably made in Henry’s own armourer’s workshop at Greenwich in 1515.

The Tower of London also houses military uniform and polo kit belonging to Prince Charles, on display in the Power House exhibition in the White Tower.

Blogger: Angela Clare, Researcher

Collections Up Close April

As the well-known Bond theme goes ‘Diamonds Are Forever’. Diamonds have a long history as treasured gemstones and are April’s birthstone. Diamonds are used as engraving tools as they have the highest resistance to scratching of any material known. Some of the Royal Armouries’ more ornate collection items are decorated with diamonds.

Most notably are two guns on display in the Treasures of the Royal Armouries in the White Tower’s 1st floor gallery at the Tower of London. The first is a pistol made in Germany in 1991, a SIG P226, which is decorated with white gold and blue enamel and an astonishing 1,517 diamonds.

SIG P226 decorated with diamonds

SIG P226 decorated with diamonds

The second is a six shot revolver made in American about 1992. It is a Smith & Wesson model 586 and decorated in red gold, red enamel and diamonds. Both guns were decorated by a London jeweller for their owners.

Smith & Wesson 586 decorated in red gold, red enamel and diamonds

Smith & Wesson 586 decorated in red gold, red enamel and diamonds

Blogger: Angela Clare, Researcher

Towton on Twitter

On 29 March 1461 the largest and bloodiest battle of the Wars of the Roses was fought about 12 miles southwest of York, between the villages of Towton and Saxton. According to the chroniclers more than 50,000 soldiers from the Houses of York & Lancaster fought in blizzard conditions on Palm Sunday 550 years ago.

Towton 1461

Towton 1461

On Saturday 9 April join us on Twitter from our Towton History In Your Hands Seminar to learn more about the arms and armour of the period, find out how the battle unfolded and see images of contemporary pieces from the Royal Armouries collections. We’ll be Tweeting the day’s events live as they happen from 10.30am.

To join simply follow @Royal_Armouries on Twitter or search for #RAseminars on Twitter to join in the action. We’d love to hear any questions you have about the Battle of Towton so please ask away, on the day or in advance – we’re waiting to hear from you!