Conservation in action: The German 25 cm trench mortar (Minenwerfer ) 1917

In 2004 a former member of the Royal Armouries staff collected this German 25 cm trench mortar from a Farm in Norfolk, where for a number of years it had been exposed to the elements and was in need of some tender loving care.



On site at Royal Armouries Fort Nelson in Portsmouth, the trench mortar remained in the Artillery Hall, where it continued to suffer from the adverse conditions until Mick Cooper (Fort Nelson Technician)  began the lengthy conservation process last year. Mick jumped at the opportunity to restore the rare object, and was not deterred by its level of degeneration.

On initial inspection, due to the extensive level of corrosion, the mortar had completely seized.  To aid in the dismantling process, a releasing agent was used. The Mortar was dismantled into three main sections: the gun, the chassis and the wheels. PH neutral chemicals and sensitive abrasive cleaning techniques were primarily utilised to remove the corrosion, however due to the extent of the decay, grit blasting was applied to larger areas. The chassis had deteriorated extensively, both the rear end and the middle section were missing. New rear chassis sections were reconstructed out of fiberglass.

The wheels comprised of different sections and materials, including a metal tyre and wheel hub, and wooden spokes and fellies. Once removed from the metal tyre, the wooden spokes were initially rubbed down and put in the freezer for a minimum of one month to kill all bugs and termites.

Mick sourced wood to manufacture the five fellies and two spokes which had rotted and obtained a high level of satisfaction in applying his previously learnt wheelwright carpentry skills into practice.  The metal tyre and wheel hub were fortunately intact. Sensitive abrasive techniques were used to remove any traces of corrosion.

When all areas had been successfully stripped back and restored where appropriate, a zinc phosphate primer and authentic paint was carefully applied to all metal and wood surfaces.conservation5


Now, fully reconstructed, the 25 cm Minenwerfer looks robust. It is carefully positioned in the Voice of the Guns to prevent future risk of corrosion.

25 cm trench mortar (Minenwerfer )

25 cm trench mortar (Minenwerfer )



Warrior Treasures: Inspired by the Hoard


Jemma Churchill as Deb – and Deb Klemperer, New Vic Theatre, Stoke-on-Trent May 2015 ©Joshua Val Martin (Twitter)

At the Royal Armouries in Leeds, visitors can see our new temporary exhibition ‘Warrior Treasures: Saxon Gold of the Staffordshire Hoard’, running from the 27th May until the 2nd October 2016. In parallel with the exhibition, the museum is running a blog series providing behind the scenes details on how these fascinating items were discovered, conserved, and prepared for the exhibition. In this post, Deb Klemperer, Principal Curator at The Potteries Museum & Art Gallery, Stoke-on-Trent, (with the help of Paul Bailey, Cultural Development Officer, Stoke-on-Trent City Council) talks about how the Staffordshire Hoard has inspired a variety of artistic responses.


Paul Bailey (centre back), Nick Dodds Chief Operating Officer Cultural Olympiad London 2012 (back left) and artist Katharine Morling (centre front) Image © Jas Sansi, Flickr


Since the discovery of the Staffordshire Hoard in July 2009, there has been an outpouring of artistic responses to the fabulously intricate seventh-century gold and silver weapon fittings and Christian regalia. Visitors to the Hoard exhibitions, craft-workers, jewellers, artists, poets, potters, re-enactors, sculptors and playwrights have all felt inspired to produce work, or have gained funding to develop their work. Some of this has happened spontaneously and some in collaboration with the Hoard’s owners, Stoke-on-Trent City Council (SOTCC), The Potteries Museum & Art Gallery, Birmingham City Council (BCC), and Birmingham Museums Trust.

It has been a really fascinating part of my work over the past seven years to see the many and varied responses to the Hoard. A small sample are highlighted here:

‘Wake the Warrior’  by Naseem Derby

“Wake the Warrior” is a very fine, hollow filigree work stitched from thousands of black threads. The artist adopted the Raven from the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf as her messenger to explore the mythology and culture of the Hoard. Internally lit on a plinth, her Raven symbolises death as a part of life. It is really moving and powerful.

New Vic Theatre Hoard Festival  

In the summer of 2015, the New Vic Theatre in Stoke-on-Trent, led by artistic director Theresa Heskins, and funded by Arts Council England, put on an ambitious programme of plays, playlets and storytelling all based on the Staffordshire Hoard. It was incredible to watch the process from afar– the research, the interviews, the call for playwrights, the rehearsals – which took place over 16 months of feverish activity. Theresa Heskins wrote a documentary play about the Hoard’s discovery, ‘Unearthed’ which was selected as one of the Guardian’s top ten shows of 2015


Jemma Churchill as Deb in ‘Unearthed’ © The Sentinel newspaper Stoke-on-Trent

One of the strangest things for me was to attend a launch evening at the New Vic, feel a tap on my shoulder, and turn to a smiling woman who said ‘Hello Deb Klemperer, I’m Deb Klemperer’ (see top photo, taken shortly after our meeting).

Some of my favourite work was to be found in the table plays – very short pieces performed at one’s table in the bar. The actress Suzanne Ahmed, dressed in a red and gold sari, talking emotionally of being torn away from her southern Indian homeland – and then the slow realisation that she was a garnet, describing her journey from a mine or quarry, to being inset into a piece of the Staffordshire Hoard – was really, really good (The Foreigner by Lydia Adetunji).




Images © Andrew Billington from New Vic’s Hoard Festival ‘Unearthed’ and ‘The Gift’

‘Morling and the Hoard’:

As part of the London 2012 Festival and Cultural Olympiad SOTCC commissioned Katharine Morling, an award-winning ceramic artist, to create a body of work in response to the Staffordshire Hoard. It was a pleasure to spend time with Katharine, and let her hold the treasure, and answer her many enthusiastic questions. Katharine’s large unglazed ceramic pieces explores the mystic world of animal enchantment and the magic and the power embedded in our ancient beliefs. They are displayed near the Hoard, and elsewhere in The Potteries Museum & Art Gallery.

The Last Dragon Hunter:

image8The Last Dragon Hunter’ is a short film commissioned by SOTCC for broadcast in The Potteries Museum & Art gallery’s ‘Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Mercia’ exhibition. Taking inspiration from the Staffordshire Hoard and Saxon myth and legend, the lively film is aimed at children and families. It was brought to life using a mix of live action filmed in the beautiful north Staffordshire countryside and animation by local filmmaker Chris Stone and BigRED Studios. The film tells the mythical story of the Staffordshire Saxon, a  bronze statue by Andy Edwards that stands in the foyer of the Potteries Museum & Art Gallery. It also explores why the hoard may have been buried in antiquity. image9


Clay, Fire and Gold is a book of poetry commissioned by SOTCC to reflect on the city centre. Staffordshire Poet Laureate Tom Wye wrote 11 poems excerpts from which have been engraved into the city centre pavements. The book will be launched at the Hot Air Stoke-on-Trent Literary Festival at the Emma Bridgewater factory in June 2016.

Quotations from ‘The Hoard’ appear in the pavement adjacent to The Potteries Museum & Art Gallery. It is a marvel to me how much this chance find in a Staffordshire field by a metal detectorist  has touched so many lives, inspired so many people:

“Steeped in mystery from beyond the mists.

Buried through years on a scarred field,

Reborn is the Staffordshire Hoard.”

To find out more about the Royal Armouries exhibition ‘Warrior Treasures: Saxon Gold of the Staffordshire Hoard’ please visit our exhibition microsite

Images not credited are ©Stoke-on-Trent City Council.

‘Do nothing or go the Full Hog and Build a Replica’


The Dutch Composite gun sometimes known as a Minion Drake being lowered into the desalination tank.

Fort Nelson Conservator Matthew Hancock is presenting a paper at the triennial Institute of Conservation conference in Birmingham this afternoon.

The paper titled ‘Do nothing or go the Full Hog and build a Replica’, investigates current treatment trends in conservation in line with the conference theme.   The presentation uses one of the Fort’s most interesting and recent acquisitions, the mid 17th century Composite gun, as a case study for this academic presentation. The Composite gun was chosen because a minimum of two different conservation techniques could be utilized to conserve it. Additionally, due to the history associated with the gun, it would be desirable to build a replica for preservation of skills and historic research.

The paper presented by Matthew will look at the conservation treatments options for this gun and the issues arising from managing complex conservation projects.

The presentation identifies the pros and cons behind administrating different conservation treatments, for example why in certain situations building a replica which conserves skills may outweigh moving the gun from storage in a desalination tank  for future generations to enjoy. Frequently a combination of different treatment techniques is utilised as shown below.

canon2This image captures the level of corrosion on the Composite gun. Treatment methods to conserve the intricate design would include washing out the chloride ions; pacifying the corrosion using either a pH neutral chemical or sensitive abrasive treatment. Finally a protective wax would be applied.

The paper briefly discusses the authenticity of the gun and the science combined with historical research used to establish that the gun was in fact genuine. The combination of historical and scientific research is another current treatment trend within conservation.  In this case, forensic XRF (x-ray fluorescence) technology was used to identify the different types of metal that make this gun a composite gun.

To find out more about the Dutch Composite gun, check out Matthew’s previous blog post here:

Warrior Treasures: ‘Look beyond the gold!’ meet Chris Fern, Lead Specialist.

IMG_1010At the Royal Armouries in Leeds, visitors can see our new temporary exhibition ‘Warrior Treasures: Saxon Gold of the Staffordshire Hoard’, running from the 27th May until the 2nd October 2016. In parallel with the exhibition, the museum is running a blog series providing behind the scenes details on how these fascinating items were discovered, conserved, and prepared for the exhibition. In this post,  Anglo-Saxon specialist Chris Fern, lead researcher on the Staffordshire Hoard, encourages to ‘look beyond the gold’ of this Saxon treasures… 

The Staffordshire hoard is an extraordinary treasure of the 7th century, found in 2009, that is providing a new window on England’s early history in a time of forming kingdoms and changing beliefs.  In the period, the eastern half of the country was split into numerous Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, many in regions still recognised today, including East Anglia, Northumbria, Kent and Mercia. These kingdoms fought each other frequently, and also campaigned against British kingdoms in the west. The competition was for territory and resources, but casual raiding for livestock and in pursuit of slaves was probably also commonplace. Above all gold was the prize most desired, and at this period, when coinage was still rare in England, the metal was transformed into beautiful objects. Kings used these treasures to reward loyal warriors, creating bonds of fealty which underpinned political power.

Gold — noblest of metals, bright and incorruptible – is the instantly defining attribute of the hoard. Similarly it is woven through the fabric of the famous Anglo-Saxon poem, Beowulf. Not since the great kingly treasure of Sutton Hoo was discovered in 1939 has a single find so captured the imagination of Anglo-Saxon scholars and the public alike. Each of the finds of the hoard would ordinarily be a rare prize. Yet, the find from a field in Staffordshire makes clear as never before that the warrior ranks of early England were bedecked with golden weapons, transformed by expert artisans into beautiful works of art. The glittering blood-red garnets inlaid on many of the objects were also well suited to the business of the battlefield (Fig. 1).

K284_K327_scale 2_1_CF edit

Figure 1. Pommel no. 52 (K284, K327) in gold and garnet cloisonné. One end was found torn off. © Birmingham Museums Trust.

Quite literally the ‘devil’ is in the detail. To see this one must look beyond the gold of the objects. By closely examining them, deeper messages are revealed, wrought in the metal. The art of the hoard was not simply decoration, but conceals in many cases creatures and other symbols that relate to the traditional pre-Christian ‘pagan’ and new Christian beliefs of the warriors. In many periods in the past, soldiers have worn or carried symbols of belief, to give divine protection on the battlefield. The objects of the hoard served the armies of kingdoms in a time of great change, with the coming of Christianity to pagan England, that challenged long-held beliefs.  In some cases, sword pommels and other objects bear motifs from both traditions, depictions of battling beasts that relate to paganism, as well as crosses. Pommel no. 52 is one example (Fig. 2). In these cases the individuals who owned the weapons may have been seeking protection from the gods of both faiths. Paganism was not an exclusive doctrinal faith like Christianity and there is one famous account of an Anglo-Saxon ruler setting up altars to pagan ‘devils’ and Christ (Bede HE II.15).

The manufacture of the objects is also incredible to behold, though a magnifying glass is often a necessary aid to appreciating this. The gold wires used in the filigree decoration were handmade to as little as 0.2mm, and each garnet stone was individually shaped. Some of the garnets may have come from as far away as India. We know little of the craftsmen who made the objects. The famous legend of Weland, tells of a smith hamstrung and forced to work on an island by a king. It is possible the smiths who made the hoard objects were also bondsmen in royal service, tasked with creating kingdom styles.


Figure 2. Pommel no. 52 (K284, K327) showing the combining of religious beliefs. One side has a geometric pattern of rounded and triangular arches, evoking classical architecture, and at the ends are Christian crosses; the other side shows a motif of a pair of embattled beasts, with disembodied bird beaks at the ends, and probably had pagan meaning. © Drawing Chris Fern/Barbican Research Associates.

As the lead specialist working on the collection, it has been my privilege to work on unlocking the secrets of the hundreds of objects, a process that will long continue.

Remember to look beyond the gold!

To find out more about the Royal Armouries exhibition ‘Warrior Treasures: Saxon Gold of the Staffordshire Hoard’ please visit our exhibition microsite

Join our Warrior Treasures exhibition conference Saturday 11th June to hear from leading experts in the field, who will explore the many aspects of this remarkable Anglo-Saxon find and explain how it is adding to our understanding of the people that made, used and buried this magnificent hoard. Please see full details and purchase tickets via the Royal Armouries website.


Warrior Treasures: hear from the blacksmith, Stuart Makin

At the Royal Armouries in Leeds, visitors can see our new temporary exhibition ‘Warrior Treasures: Saxon Gold of the Staffordshire Hoard’, running from the 27th May until the 2nd October 2016. In parallel with the exhibition, the museum is running a blog series providing behind the scenes details on how these fascinating items were discovered, conserved, and prepared for the exhibition. In this post, we heard from blacksmith and artist Stuart Makin who has made a stunning sculpture inspired by the objects of the Staffordshire Hoard which you can see in the exhibition.


My name is Stuart Makin, I run a blacksmithing company called Iron Forged Designs in Northamptonshire and I was commissioned to design and make a piece of metalwork inspired by elements from the Staffordshire Hoard. This piece of work is currently being exhibited alongside artefacts from the Hoard in the Royal Armouries exhibition ‘Warrior Treasures: Saxon Gold of the Staffordshire Hoard’.

I have been a blacksmith for 13 years, both of my parents are engineers, a path I wanted to follow myself, however I was gifted with being quite good with my hands but lacking in the intelligence needed to be an engineer. Blacksmithing presented a balance that was more hand craft than engineering but still contained enough of the latter to convince myself that I was following in my parents’ footsteps. Numerous evening classes, college courses and an apprenticeship later I found myself as an arrogant and talented young man who believed I could do better than any of the employers I had worked for. So I put my money where my mouth was and set up my own business with a fellow blacksmith, Ben Landucci. Running my own business has made me a slightly older and slightly humbler man.

Picture1I am trained as an Artist Blacksmith; I love to combine traditional techniques with more contemporary designs to produce unique pieces of metalwork. However, I have another love, one that has been nurtured since being old enough to pretend sticks were swords and bin lids were shields, history, particularly Anglo-Saxon history. I make historical replicas, researching an original object and trying to reproduce it as accurately as possible, I love the connection it makes between me and an ancient craftsman from hundreds of years ago. The reason this slightly rambling tangent is important is because the commission from the Royal Armouries had enabled me to combine those two facets of my blacksmithing into one sculpture. I have had the opportunity to indulge myself in research of the artefacts from the Staffordshire Hoard (in work time too!!!) and flex the creative muscles to design and create something that pays homage to the skills of the Anglo-Saxon craftsman.

Gold Hoard Images created by BM&AG

K370 – Gold and garnet hilt collar from a seax or single-bladed knife © Birmingham Museums Trust.


K1084 – Gold and garnet cloisonné bird mount from a hilt © Birmingham Museums Trust.

The objects from the Hoard are so tiny, intricate and beautifully made, however, I decided to produce a large sculpture 2.5 metres tall and the purpose for this sheer size in comparison to the original artefacts is that I wanted to convey the magnitude of importance that the Staffordshire Hoard has on our understanding of Anglo-Saxon warrior culture, history and craftsmanship. My design was influenced by some of the artefacts I found most inspiring from the Staffordshire Hoard. The pieces that stood out to me the most were the seax hilt fittings and the eagle mount. I kept going back to those intertwining beasts on the seax fittings and wondered how I could incorporate something like that in my work.

Picture3It was important to me to try and give a glimpse to viewers of my sculpture the various stages of how the beautiful cloisonné sword fittings would have been made. The central portion of the sculpture acts as a visual pathway drawing the eye upwards from the bottom where the design is engraved to the centre where the design is cut out to demonstrate the cutting of cells ready to have garnets inlaid. The top of the piece has the cells fitted with red transparent Perspex to show the fitting of the garnets. The transparent red Perspex also allows light to pass through making a stained glass window effect and really emphasizing the colour that makes the objects from the Staffordshire Hoard so distinctive.

I feel I have had the opportunity to get as close as possible to the real Anglo-Saxons who made and used these artefacts, even though technology and equipment may have changed (I am blessed with power tools those poor fellows were not) skills and techniques used are still similar. I like to think that the Saxon craftsman would have sat back after finishing his work and have a sense of quiet pride in what he had accomplished in the same way I have done with this sculpture. I hope that my work will help people who come to view the exhibition get that same feeling that I have, that the Anglo-Saxons are not just skeletons to be resigned to glass cases in museums but that they were human beings, some with the talent to produce beautiful warrior treasures.


The Battle of Jutland: an eyewitness account of the largest sea battle in history

The 31 May/1 June marks the 100th anniversary of the Battle of Jutland. It was the only major First World War fleet action fought between the British Grand Fleet and the German High Seas Fleet, and the largest sea battle in history.

Our Archives and Records Manager, Philip Abbot, uncovers some of the details of this important battle through the journals of Gerald Slade, midshipman on HMS Inflexible.

Gerald Slade was born in Hong Kong in 1899, and entered the Royal Naval College, Osborne, Isle of Wight, as a cadet shortly before his thirteenth birthday. After completing his education and training he joined the battlecruiser, HMS Inflexible, as a midshipman on 8 September 1915.

HMS Inflexible

HMS Inflexible. Source: US Library of Congress. Public Domain.

During the Battle of Jutland he was stationed on the ship’s fighting top high up on the main mast, where he had an excellent view of the action. He left a personal account of his experiences in the form of a journal:


May 30th 1916

Proceeded from Scapa Flow ahead of Battle Fleet at 8.15.

May 31st 1916

3.0 PM closed up at action stations.

4.0 PM were given half an hour for tea. Heard that the “Lion” was engaging the enemy. The 5th B.S. Sqn Queen Elizabeth was with them. We were now proceeding at full speed (about 27 kts). It was 3.50 when the “Lion” reported that she was engaging the enemy.

5.29 heard the sound of firing right ahead + a short time later saw numerous gun flashes.

5.40 sighted enemy light cruisers and destroyers. These were all concentrating on the “Chester” + she was having a very hot time of it.

5.55 opened fire on enemy light cruisers + succeeded in sinking at least one. She blew up in a dense cloud of steam.

On the evening of 30 May 1916, the Third Battle Cruiser Squadron under the command of Rear Admiral Hood (flagship HMS Invincible) sailed from Scapa Flow, and steamed south westwards at high speed, followed at intervals by the rest of the British Grand Fleet.

The opening phase of the action was fought between the German battlecruisers under the command of Admiral Hipper (flagship SMS Lutzow) and their British counterparts under Admiral Beatty (flagship HMS Lion), supported by the 5th Battle Ship Squadron, consisting of the Queen Elizabeth class battleships (the most modern and powerful ships in either fleet). Two of the British battlecruisers, HMS Indefatigable and HMS Queen Mary, blew up with heavy loss of life, and a number of the German ships were badly damaged.

Shortly after 4.00 PM, Admiral Jellicoe (flagship HMS Iron Duke), in command of the Grand Fleet, ordered the 3rd Battle Cruiser Squadron to increase speed and join Beatty’s hard-pressed forces. HMS Chester, scouting ahead of the squadron, was engaged by four German light cruisers, and badly damaged. When the battlecruisers opened fire, the German light cruiser, SMS Wiesbaden, was quickly disabled, but despite Slade’s claim she remained afloat.

Additional entries in Slade’s journal describe the battle:

6.0 check fire. A Torpedo passed under our stern.

6.15 we are to starboard in order to avoid a Torpedo which passed about 10 yds away along out port side. We watched it from the Fore Top + could even see the propellers moving. The Torpedo Lieut was afraid that the Gyro would fail + she might turn + bump us.

6.20 openned fire on a Battleship of the “Kaiser” class. We landed one salvo on her fore turret + appeared to have flatenned it out.

6.35 the Grand Fleet openned fire on the enemy. It was a fine sight to see them. They were so formed as to be able to bring every gun to bear. Indom. [HMS Indomitable] and Inflex. [HMS Inflexible] formed astern of the B.C.s.

6.30 the “Invincible” was blown up. She went up in a tremendous cloud of yellow cordite smoke. She broke in half + bows and stern were left floating but I saw no survivors. Apparently a salvo pitched amidships + blew up her P + Q magazine. Huge pieces of steel + iron were falling everywhere but none touched us. We have heard that six were picked up after + I think were all part …

Several torpedos were fired at the British battlecruisers, but they managed to dodge them all. As the main body of the High Seas Fleet under the command of Admiral Scheer (flagship SMS Fredrich der Grosse) were enemy’s observed ahead, Hood ordered his ships to alter course to port, and opened fire at a range of about 8,000 to 9,000 yards. Inflexible’s Gunnery Officer later reported that the first salvo hit the target. The battlecruisers themselves came under heavy fire, and although Inflexible was not hit, Slade later admitted in a letter to his mother that “we had a good many shells bursting pretty close to us & we got a few splinters from one. Invincible was sunk with the loss of all but six of her crew of 1,032 officers and men. The Inflexible had to alter course to avoid the wreckage.


HMS Invincible exploding at the Battle of Jutland, 31 May 1916. Source: Fighting at Jutland: The personal experiences of forty five officers and men of the British Fleet, (London: Hutchinson and Co, Ltd, 1921). Image is available online at Internet Archive.

Battlecruisers were large ships designed to scout ahead of the main battle fleet and find the enemy, to protect the battleships from torpedo armed cruisers and destroyers, and to pursue the enemy fleet and use their guns to damage or slow opposing ships. They were armed with heavy guns (similar to those of the battleships) but were forced to compromise protection in favour of speed. The vulnerability of the battlecruisers combined with the practice of storing shells in gun turrets, ammunition hoists and other working areas to increase the rate of fire poor shell resulted in the loss of three battlecruisers at Jutland.


The Inflexible and Indomitable formed astern of the Beatty’s ships as the main body of the Grand Fleet finally appeared and engaged the enemy. Jellicoe ordered his squadrons to alter course in an attempt to bring all guns to bear (in a manoeuvre known as Crossing the ‘T’), and the High Seas Fleet was forced to turn away. Outnumbered and outgunned Scheer decided to break off the action.

… of their Fore Top’s crew (52 4 N, 6 6 E).

7.25 opened fire on a flotilla of German destroyers which were probably going to attack with Torpedoes. They were successfully driven off. Light cruisers + destroyers were now ordered to proceed at full speed + attack with Torpedoes.

7.45 a Torpedo passed 150 yds astern.

8.20 opened fire on Enemy Battle Cruisers + a Battleship of the “Kaiser” class. I think we made a few hits but the light was so bad + the mist so thick that it was extremely hard to see any fall of shot. As it was we were only firing at the flashes. We were not firing for very long. But the Indomitable carried on firing at something for about another 10 salvoes.

8.30 check fire. 3 ships appeared to be firing at “Inflexible”.

8.35 a Torpedo missed out bow by about 50 yds.

8.40 there was a violent shock felt under the ship.

8.45 a submarine broke surface? about 100 yds on the starboard beam. She may have been struck by the ship or the ship may have run on some submerged wreckage.

9.30 A/C south.

Was in the Fore Top until 10.15 then on the Bridge…

As the High Seas Fleet headed south at high speed under cover of a smoke screen the German light forces mounted a torpedo attack. The Inflexible had to alter course sharply to avoid being hit, and Slade admitted to his mother that they were “pretty lucky”. The British battlecruisers caught up with their German counterparts at dusk, and opened fire at 6,000 yards.

HMS Inflexible carried eight 12-inch guns mounted in four twin turrets, one forward (A), one aft (X), and two amidships on either side of the ship (P and Q). The guns fired shells weighing 850 pounds at a maximum muzzle velocity of 2,725 feet per second. They could be elevated to an angle of 13.5 degrees, which enabled a maximum range of 18,850 yards. The control of the guns was centralised under the ship’s Gunnery Officer in the Director Tower.



The 12-inch guns on HMS Indomitable. Source: US Library of Congress Bain Collection. Public Domain.

Powerful optical systems (9-foot coincidence range-finding equipment supplied by Barr and Stroud) were used to establish the range and bearing to the target. The results were then fed into a fire-control table (Dreyer table Mark I), a form of mechanical computer, which combined the Inflexible’s and the target’s courses, bearing and speeds, and presented a firing solution. The guns were then trained and elevated on the target, and fired together in a salvo.



Barr and Stroud Range Finder

9-foot Barr and Stroud Range Finder.

The fall of shot was observed (the shells caused huge splashes) and corrections made in the firing solution until the target was straddled. It was a complicated process, and made more difficult in action by poor visibility, rough seas, the ship’s own violent manouveres, and by the enemy’s fire. The Grand Fleet’s gunnery was much criticised after the battle.


… until 12.0. Managed to get 1/12 hours sleep + then closed up at action stations at 2.15 AM.

June 1st

3.15 AM Sighted a Zeppelin on the starboard quarter about 17-18000 yds away. The “Indomitable” fired two rounds of shrapnel at her but they did not burst anywhere near her. She then turned away + very nearly went out of sight but again turned + came towards us. A light cruiser squadron opened fire on her. Most of the shells were short except about two which burst just ahead of her. By the she was going full speed away.

11.45 passed the wreck of a big shop on the starboard side, Name unknown.

2.24 PM Passed a boat of German design marked “V29” (she is on of their latest destroyers).

2-30 – 2.50 passed through a large area of dead bodies (all German I think). Some of them had their part of the watch bade on their shoulders. All had cork life belts on. One lief buoy we passed had the letters S.M.S ____ pn it but a body was lying acorss the name of the ship.

2.45 passed the wreck of the Invincible again + a destroyer was sent to sink it.

3.15 we passed through a large track of oil which was probably from the Invincible + a large amount of wreckage probably from a destroyer.

Jellicoe was unwilling to risk a night action, and ordered his fleet to steer a course that would intercept the High Seas Fleet at dawn. However Scheer altered course during the night to cross the wake of the Grand Fleet, and although the British light forces made a series of torpedo attacks throughout the night, they failed to receive support from the main body. By daylight the High Seas Fleet had escaped.

Both sides claimed victory after the battle, but the result was inconclusive. The Imperial German Navy had hoped to surprise and destroy a portion of the British fleet, but although it inflicted heavier losses in both men and ships, Scheer was forced to withdraw. The Royal Navy had hoped for a decisive battle, but Jellicoe was unable to prevent the enemy from breaking off the engagement, and lost contact with the enemy during the night.

The Inflexible sustained no damage or casualties during the battle, other than a small indentation in the ship’s out skin cause by the collision with the underwater wreckage (Slade’s report of a submarine is not confirmed), and a crack in the right gun of “Q” turret, which had been caused during the gun’s calibration and was enlarged.

Gerald Slade continued to serve aboard the Inflexible until March 1918 when he volunteered for the submarine service. He served in submarines until 1935, when he became the Fleet Photographic Officer in the first the Mediterranean and then with the Home Fleet. He retired in 1944 with the rank of Commander.

Warrior Treasures: meet Henry Yallop, lead curator of the exhibition

In just a week’s time, a selection of the Staffordshire Hoard will be shown in Leeds as part of the Royal Armouries ‘Warrior Treasures: Saxon Gold of the Staffordshire Hoard’ temporary exhibition, running from the 27th May until the 2nd October 2016. The Royal Armouries is therefore running a blog series providing behind the scenes details on how these fascinating items were discovered, conserved, and prepared for the exhibition. Today we hear from Henry Yallop, Lead Curator of the exhibition and Assistant Curator of Edged Weapons at The Royal Armouries.

Find out more at our exhibition conference day, Saturday 11th June, see details on the Warrior Treasures exhibition website.

IMG_3519 - FWW YEP Photocall - 110714 - FWW YEP Photocall - 120714We are now very close to opening of our exciting summer exhibition Warrior Treasures: Saxon Gold from the Staffordshire Hoard.  The marvellous new exhibition space will bring visitors face to face with one of the most important discoveries of early Anglo-Saxon material culture; which in addition to being hugely important to historians and archaeologists is comprised of exquisitely crafted objects of outstanding beauty.

I truly believe this is going to appeal to a wide range of visitors for a whole host of reasons. If you already have an interest in the early medieval period, or are a regular visitor to our National Collection of Arms & Armour and are interested in historic weapons, then I am sure you are already planning to come.  However, you don’t need to be a military history enthusiast to enjoy this particular exhibition. Those with a passion for jewellery and the decorative arts will be impressed by the craftsmanship and artistic quality of these stunning objects. I am sure many others will be coming to our Leeds site for the first time; drawn by the lure of gold, our interpretation of an Anglo-Saxon mead hall and our varied series of events.  Whatever your interest or age, I urge you not to miss the opportunity view this fascinating part of Britain’s cultural heritage.

If you’re thinking ‘what does Staffordshire Hoard have to do with me?’ I answer with this; the hoard has both national and local relevance. The hoard is from the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Mercia, which at the time of its burial (650-675 AD) was one of the largest and most powerful kingdoms in what later would be known as England.  At various points as its power waxed and waned, Mercia contained large parts of modern day Yorkshire.  In addition, the objects that comprise the hoard came from a variety of sources, both domestic and foreign.


K328 – Cloisonné bird with garnets, probably from a hilt grip © Birmingham Museums Trust

The hoard’s discovery is not just something that will interest archaeologists but is of universal appeal: unearthing buried treasure of international importance is a story I defy anyone not to be excited by!  The objects themselves really are unique in terms of their number, quality and condition.  You don’t have to be especially interested in swords to be awed by the Hoard.  When considered as standalone art objects each hilt plate, pommel cap or sword pyramid is a breath-taking object, crafted from the finest of materials by the most skilled of hands. Yet these objects fitted together to be beautiful, yet crucial functional parts of weapons of the 7th century AD, which brings an additional level of appreciation to them. Ornate, prized possessions of the elite these objects certain were, but a warrior elite who wore these weapons and used them in war.  Despite the absence of blades in the hoard many of the hilt fittings show signs of use.  These were parts of quite literally cutting edge weapon systems; not simply status symbols for ceremonial use.


K108 and K699 – Pair of collars from a sword hilt decorated with fine gold filigree wires © Birmingham Museums Trust

The decorative arts, craftsmanship of the highest standard using precious materials often went hand in hand with arms and armour, but can be a forgotten part of the subject. In any period the most masterful of crafts people applied their skills to the creation and adornment of high status arms and armour. Even unadorned swords, due to the materials and complex processes involved in their creation would have been the rare objects owned only by the few; yet the richly decorated weapon fittings of the Staffordshire Hoard speak of the very highest ranks of these warrior elites.


K1497 – Decorative filigree mount from a sword hilt, probably in the shape of a horse © Birmingham Museums Trust

For me, it is a great privilege to be involved in this project.The Staffordshire Hoard was not only an amazing discovery due to the materials and age of the objects, but also their purpose.  Unusually for a hoard it is mainly comprised of military equipment, specifically hilt fittings from swords. As someone fascinated by the early medieval period, and whose ‘day job’ is as Assistant Curator of Edged Weapons this exhibition presents a special combination. At the Royal Armouries we have 18,000 edged weapons from all periods and places, but of course relatively few survive from the early Anglo-Saxon period. As such, the hoard which contains the parts of over 100 swords, including hitherto unknown forms, is of huge significance to our knowledge of arms and armour of the period and of great interest to the National Museum of Arms & Armour. What has previously been discovered in terms of Anglo-Saxon weapons typically come from grave goods, and the arrival of the Staffordshire Hoard has enabled us to showcase one such group which the Royal Armouries generously has on long term loan from the owners. The Wollaston warrior is a high status warrior grave, which like the Staffordshire Hoard came from the Anglian kingdom of Mercia and is 7th century in date, which will also be available to view in the exhibition space.

To find out more about the Royal Armouries upcoming exhibition ‘Warrior Treasures: Saxon Gold of the Staffordshire Hoard’ please visit our exhibition microsite

Join our Warrior Treasures exhibition conference Saturday 11th June to hear from leading experts in the field, who will explore the many aspects of this remarkable Anglo-Saxon find and explain how it is adding to our understanding of the people that made, used and buried this magnificent hoard. Please see full details and purchase tickets via the Royal Armouries website.


Warrior Treasures: Conserving the Staffordshire Hoard

A selection of the Staffordshire Hoard will be shown in Leeds as part of the Royal Armouries ‘Warrior Treasures: Saxon Gold of the Staffordshire Hoard’ temporary exhibition, running from the 27th May until the 2nd October 2016. The Royal Armouries is therefore running a blog series providing behind the scenes details on how these fascinating items were discovered, conserved, and prepared for the exhibition. In this post Kayleigh Fuller, Staffordshire Hoard Conservator, talks about her work with the collection and the exhibition so far.

Find out more at our exhibition conference day, Saturday 11th June, see details on the Warrior Treasures exhibition website.

IMG_0567Myself and Lizzie Miller are objects conservators working on Stage 2 of the Staffordshire Hoard Project in Birmingham. Our job involves facilitating the research aims of the project through stabilisation, re-assembly, documentation and cataloguing of the 4000 fragments of Anglo-Saxon treasure found in 2009. Most recently we have been involved in preparation for the touring exhibition ‘Warrior Treasures’. I will visit in May to install the objects and Lizzie will be talking about the conservation work in Leeds on the 11th June.

I’m really excited about the opening of the Warrior Treasures tour in Leeds. First of all because the Staffordshire Hoard Project team have put a lot of work into this touring exhibition, and it shows some of the most stunning and unusual sword adornments we have been reassembling over the last year. Secondly, being from the North, it gives my close friends and family the opportunity to travel and see some of the incredible objects I have been lucky enough to work on.

Horse mount

Decorative filigree mount from a sword hilt, probably in the shape of a horse, which is included in the Warriors Treasures exhibition.

Throughout my time working on the Hoard, we get to look at the objects and fragments under a greater magnification and through this are able to see the objects in a completely different light. It is very likely that you will see the promotional images for the exhibition and then be astounded at the true size of the objects in reality. I feel that one of my personal favourite items, a horse mount, demonstrates the extreme skill in the craftsmanship of these items. If you look at the magnified image above, a scroll is around 1mm in width and 2mm in length. Each of these scrolls are perfectly curled and made from individually beaded wire.

This year we have been reassembling some complexly designed objects from a mixed array of fragments. The below object is one of three rare pommels with two sword rings attached to either side ( Two of these items are in the Warrior Treasures exhibition.

Initial selection of fragments for the pommel

Initial selection of fragments for the pommel.

Fragments lined up, ready to be joined

Fragments lined up, ready to be joined.

As we have progressed in the task of reassembling the fragments, the objects have developed over time with us. This cast silver-gilded pommel is a prime example of this and shows the unique benefit of close working relationships between the conservators and the archaeological finds expert throughout the execution of the work.

Organic material inside on the right

Organic material inside on the right

The pommel also has some hidden organic material inside the sword rings which we have ensured is stable and preserved in situ, before fully assembling by mounting. See if you can spot it in the exhibition. This is the only item to have a rock crystal as part of its design.

Silver Gilt  pommel

Silver and gilt pommel.

Another of my favourite pommel caps in the exhibition is the garnet cloisonné one below. If you look at each side in turn, you can see a noticeable different in the stylistic design on either side. One with a geometric arranged pattern and, the other with zoomorphic designs and a curled leaf either side. This makes me think that these items are truly bespoke to the Anglo-Saxon warrior that wielded them.

Geometric design on the back of the pommel

Geometric design on the back of the pommel.

Although initially it might seem counter-productive, one of the most brilliant things about the Staffordshire Hoard is that the objects have been ruthlessly damaged when they were removed from their original mounts. This has enabled us to carry out a thorough and intensive program of research to understand more about the craft techniques and materials used by the mystery Metalsmith’s of the period.


Two fragments with the break where you can see the construction of the cloisonné cells.

The object above was originally in two fragments before re-assembly. Thorough documentation of every fragment within the Hoard has enabled us to keep a clear record of important details before assembling the final object.
These objects are overall helping to expand our understanding of the Anglo-Saxon period and the society which lived during that time. The exhibition is well worth a visit, whether it is to learn more about Anglo-Saxon warriors, the incredible craft skills and technology of the period or even just to view some incredibly beautiful objects from this unique and astounding archaeological discovery.

All images © Birmingham Museums Trust unless otherwise indicated.

To find out more about the Royal Armouries upcoming exhibition ‘Warrior Treasures: Saxon Gold of the Staffordshire Hoard’ please visit our exhibition microsite

Join our Warrior Treasures exhibition conference Saturday 11th June to hear from leading experts in the field, who will explore the many aspects of this remarkable Anglo-Saxon find and explain how it is adding to our understanding of the people that made, used and buried this magnificent hoard. Please see full details and purchase tickets via the Royal Armouries website.

Warrior Treasures: Meet Jenni Butterworth, Project Coordinator

A selection of the Staffordshire Hoard will be shown in Leeds as part of the Royal Armouries ‘Warrior Treasures: Saxon Gold of the Staffordshire Hoard’ temporary exhibition, running from the 27th May until the 2nd October 2016. Here, Programme Coordinator Jenni Butterworth talks about her involvement in the project so far and her favourite elements of the hoard. Discover more at our exhibition conference day, Saturday 11th June, find more details on our micro-site

IMG_1231I am the Programme Coordinator for the Staffordshire Hoard- I help the two museums that look after it with administration of the collection. I’ve done this job for over three years, but I’ve been lucky enough to be involved with the hoard on and off since it was discovered- I worked on the very first television programme made about it in 2010. It was a real privilege to interview the people who had been involved in the discovery- the farmer and the finder, and the archaeologists who were called in to deal with this extraordinary treasure. For everyone involved, it was a once in a lifetime event- tremendously exciting, but a huge responsibility as well.

I can still remember the very first time I saw the hoard in 2010- it was a few months after it had been discovered, and it was laid out so a number of experts could view it. The objects were still muddy and gathered together in bags and boxes. It was mind-boggling, the sheer number of items as much as the incredible craftsmanship and the gold and garnets. I remember thinking that the hoard was a bit like a comet. There were some fabulous, bright and shining objects at the front- the ones I’d seen pictures of in the newspapers. But there was also a very long ‘tail’- thousands of broken bits and small items that were much less glamorous but just as interesting. I wondered then how it would ever be sorted out!

Today, the ‘tail’ is a lot smaller than it was in 2010- lots of those broken fragments have been reassembled into larger objects- thanks to the amazing work of the conservation team and the archaeologists. The damage to the objects happened before they were buried and the way they are broken gives us vital information about the hoard- so every broken fragment is carefully recorded by the scientists and the conservation team before it is rejoined.


Xray plate SH_L80a_2013. ©Barbican Research Associates/ Lincolnshire Archives. All the hoard objects have been x-rayed. This plate shows small filigree items, some of which have since been joined to larger objects.

There are still a lot of small objects remaining, and my particular favourites are the rivets, pins and nails. There are quite a lot of objects which still have their pins and nails attached, and you can see them on some of the mounts and pommels in the Warrior Treasures exhibition if you look carefully.

K674_after conservation underside.jpg

K674_before conservation side a.jpg

K16 with pin and mounting tab still attached (2 views)

The way the pins are bent has prevented them from falling out of their housing. Maybe they were bent when the pommel was levered off the sword hilt.

K16_after conservation front.jpg

K16_after conservation back.jpg

K16 with pin and mounting tab still attached (2 views)

But there are many gold and silver nails for which we’ll probably never know which object they came from originally- because lots of objects have similar pins, it would be hard to be sure which pin came from which object exactly. Kayleigh has a ‘rivet box’ in which they all reside. I’m not sure she’s as fond of it as I am…


These tiny pins and rivets really remind me that the objects we have in the hoard only tell us part of the story. Originally, the objects were all attached to other, bigger composite items like swords, and these pins help us understand how they were all fixed together. There are astonishing range of pins of all shapes and sizes, each presumably to do a very specific task.

A selection of pins and nails (x3). The scales show how small some of these objects are.

A gold nail isn’t a very functional object though- gold is so soft that striking it with a hammer wouldn’t work- the craftsmen must have drilled a tiny hole into the bone or horn fitting first to hold the gold nail. We know from scientific analysis that various glues and cement-type fillers were used in the assembly of the objects, so maybe they were used to help hold the pins in place. The pins and nails also show us the attention to detail shown by the smiths who crafted the objects too- many are tiny works of art in themselves. The Saxon craftsmen were lavishing their skills on making the right nails and pins for the objects, just as much as on the fine filigree and garnet decoration.

Staffordshire Hoard - group shot

All images © Birmingham Museums Trust unless otherwise indicated.

To find out more about the Royal Armouries upcoming exhibition ‘Warrior Treasures: Saxon Gold of the Staffordshire Hoard’ please visit our exhibition microsite

Join our Warrior Treasures exhibition conference Saturday 11th June to hear from leading experts in the field, who will explore the many aspects of this remarkable Anglo-Saxon find and explain how it is adding to our understanding of the people that made, used and buried this magnificent hoard. Please see full details and purchase tickets via this link





Warrior Treasures: The Grave of the Wollaston Warrior

As part of our blog series surrounding our upcoming exhibition ‘Warrior Treasures: Saxon Gold of the Staffordshire Hoard’  Claudia Rogers – PhD placement student at the Royal Armouries in Leeds – writes on the grave discoveries of the Wollaston Warrior. Discover more at our exhibition conference day, Saturday 11th June, find more details on our micro-site

Claudia picThe Wollaston Warrior’s grave was first discovered in 1997 just outside the town of Wollaston in Northamptonshire. Alongside the scarce remains of the warrior himself, this seventh-century Anglo-Saxon grave contained a helmet (at the time, only the fourth Anglo-Saxon helmet to be recovered from England), a sword, knife, three iron buckles, a dress hook, and a copper alloy hanging bowl, with one surviving decorative mount.

During my PhD placement at the Royal Armouires in Leeds, I’ll be helping with the upcoming exhibition ‘Warrior Treasures: Saxon Gold from the Staffordshire Hoard’ – a collection of gold and silver military ornaments unearthed by an amateur metal-detectorist in 2009. In this exhibition, the Wollaston Warrior’s grave goods will be displayed alongside the small but stunning objects of the Staffordshire Hoard. Whilst the Warrior’s grave goods may not be as dazzling to the eye, they’re a precious collection of great archaeological and historical importance, and, I think, rather captivating in their own way.

Firugre 7

This is the Warrior’s small knife.

I’ve spent the first part of my placement in the Collections department, undertaking research on the Wollaston grave goods. After receiving object handling training, it was a pleasure to view the objects in stores for the first time. A number of the goods were quite hard to ‘see’, due to the state of their preservation: I was quite reliant on labels on the artefact’s cases when it came to identifying the knife and buckles, which were encapsulated in centuries of natural deposits. The copper alloy hanging bowl (see below) however, was instantly recognisable, with its striking green-blue copper colouring almost glowing. Unfortunately, the bowl (like many of the artefacts) was damaged in the grave before its discovery, most likely due to the shallowness of the grave itself. Although it was sad to see the bowl in various pieces rather than intact, I was amazed that I was handling an artefact that had been buried for over 1300 years – it’s incredible such a delicate object has survived at all.

Figure 6

This is the largest buckle of the three. Found next to the scabbard, it likely functioned as part of the suspension system for the scabbard.

Firgure 3

This beautiful object is a basal escutcheon, a mount attached to the underside of the bowl for decoration. It originally featured about 24 squares of millefiori, a kind of ornamental glass.

Firgure 4

After viewing the grave goods, I was intrigued to learn more about who the Wollaston Warrior actually was. As the archaeological findings and excavation report established*, his skeletal remains are very fragmentary and poorly preserved, which really limits what we can find out about him. Most likely, though, he was a lightly-built adult who died before he reached the age of 25. Following the examination of his skeletal remains, Wollaston’s mystery man has been resting peacefully in Northamptonshire archaeological stores.

We can also learn more about the Warrior from the grave goods themselves, which indicate that the grave belonged to a male of high status. The hanging bowl, for example, was made from one sheet of bronze, requiring the talents of a highly-skilled craftsman. The bowl would have originally been suspended from three hooks and decorated with escutcheons: these embellishments would have been made of brass or high-tin bronze – rare alloys used sparingly to adorn high-status objects in the early Anglo-Saxon period. This bowl, then, certainly reflects the standing of the Wollaston Warrior, although it remains unclear what uses the bowl had. Historical research into early medieval hanging bowls generally focuses on their Romano-British origins, for which they’re often associated with Christianity and liturgical contexts. How the Anglo-Saxons adopted them for use, though, is still largely uncertain. Accordingly, what the Wollaston Warrior used his hanging bowl for remains a mystery (for the time being).

Firgure 2

The Hanging Bowl: Notice the holes along the rim section here – this is one of the points where the bowl would have been suspended from.

Along with researching the historical context of the Warrior and his grave, I’ve completed a number of different tasks during my time in the Collections department, as well as having the privilege of taking part in planning meetings and other ‘behind the scenes’ things. I found that one of the most challenging jobs was to draft exhibition labels for the hanging bowl, buckles, and dress hook – something completely new to me. Writing object labels definitely encouraged me to think about what’s most important about each of these precious artefacts, but trying to tackle all the key points about the artefact in question – age, production, physical description, state of preservation, purpose… – in less than 60 words made for an exasperating afternoon of word counting and calculations. Yet, despite the maths-related trauma, it was an enjoyable lesson in prioritisation and writing concisely; I hope it’s worth it in the end! I’ve certainly been kept on my toes.

Figure 8

The next part of my work placement will be with the Interpretation team, focusing on the staging of the ‘Warrior Treasures’ exhibition. I’ll keep you posted with how I get on!

*Ian Meadows, An Anglian Warrior Burial from Wollaston, Northamptonshire (Northampton: Northamptonshire Archaeology & Northamptonshire County Council, 2004 [digital edition 2010])